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Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Life style, Stress and Health

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Sanchika Kanagalingam April 20 2011 Psychology II Chapter 16 Life Style, Stress and Health Cultural Evolution: Life Style Choices and Consequences A cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressure Driven mainly by psychological forces Psychological developments that help us deal with environmental pressures Example. First generation will harvest their crops Second generation will use machinery to harvest crops Third generation will use robots to harvest their crops Life style The aggregated behavior of a person, or a person leads his or her life For our pre historic ancestors, life styles would be the same As culture revolution increases the options to how to do daily activities increased Culture evolution gives us options Resulted in a much higher standard of living Culture revolution also can produce threats Eg. Automobile crashes In contrast a healthy life style can be viewed as one that insures an individuals physical and psychological well-being A healthy life style includes a nutritious diets, regular exercise, no use of tobacco, moderate use of alcohol, practice of safe sex Although the consequences of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors have obvious negative biological implications, the behaviors themselves can be acquired and maintained by both biological and psychological factors www.notesolution.comSanchika Kanagalingam th April 20 2011 Psychology II The Law of Effect Behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated, and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated Many unhealthy behaviors have reinforcing consequences in the short run and damaging consequences in the long run Eg. Teens that smoke get immediate rewards and later in life suffer Stress and Health Stress in a pattern of physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive responses to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or threatening our wellbeing Stimuli are stressors Stressors can be positive or negative Positive stressors are like being stressed for a game of sports Can increase you athletic behavior When stress is extended over long time, it can have a negative effect on both a persons psychological health and a persons physical health The Biological Basis of Stress Our physical response to stressors is governed by the autonomic nervous system , which is controlled by the hypothalamus Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion The hypothalamus sends signals to the autonomic nervous system and to the pituitary gland, both of which respond by increased heart rate, blood pressure and breathing These physiological responses produce heightening psychological and physical state of alertness and readiness for action. Two ways in which stress can be maladaptive (not good) www.notesolution.com
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