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PSYA02H3 (931)

Definitions- ch 10-13.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 10 Psycholinguistics: A branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour Phoneme: The minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/ Voice-Onset Time: The delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme /p/) and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords Morpheme: The smallest unit of meaning in language Syntactical Rule: A grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases. clauses, and sentences Function Word: A preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure Content Word: A noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning Affix: a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or t its end (suffix) Semantics: the meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words Prosody: the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion Deep Structure: the essential meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words, without regard to the grammatical features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to express it in words Surface Structure: the essential meaning of a sentence Script: the characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation; assists the comprehension of verbal discourse Brocas Aphasia: severe difficulty in articulating words, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Brocas area, a region of the frontal cortex on the left (speech-dominant) side of the brain Agrammatism: a language disturbance; difficulty in the production and comprehension of grammatical features, such as proper use of unction words, word endings, and word order. Often seen in cases of Brocas aphasia Wernickes Area: a region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal; involved in the recognition of spoken words Wernickes Aphasia: a disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex, including Wernickes area; characterized by deficits in the perception speech and by the production of fluent but rather meaningless speech Pure Word Deafness: the ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage Isolation Aphasia: a language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech, accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words; caused by brain amage to the left temporal/ parietal cortex that spares Wernickes brain damage to the left temporal/ parietal cortex that spares Wernickes area. Fixation: a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move; visual information is gathered during this time Phonetic Reading: reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings;sound reading Whole- Word Reading: reading by recognizing a word as a whole; sight reading Surface Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole-word method Phonological Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out words Direct Dyslexia: a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them Semantic Priming: a facilitating effect on the recognition fo words having meanings related to a word that was presented previously Protoword: a unique string of phonemes that an infant invents and uses as a word Child-Directed Speech: the speech of an adult directed toward a child; differs in important features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children Inflection: a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to denote a grammatical feature such as tense o number Overgeneralization Errors: errors in language that occur when learners produce incorrect words or statements based on other rules of language Overextension: the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate; for example, eferring the moon as a ballUnderextension: the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring only to one particular animal as a dog Chapter 11 Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way Differential Approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems Developmental Approach: an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world Information Processing Approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems g Factor: according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; including apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates s Factor: according to Spearman, a factor intelligence that is specific to a particular task Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests Successful Intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses Analytic Intelligence: according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks; includes metacomponents performance components, and knowledge acquisition components Creative Intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously Practical Intelligence: according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaptation- fitting oneself into ones environment by developing useful skills and behaviours; selection- finding ones own nice in the environment; and shaping- changing the environment Syllogism: a logical construction that contains a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. The major and minor premises are assumed to be true, and
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