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Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders etiology: causes or origins of diseases Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? abnormal refers to any departure from the norm o ex/ Einstein = abnormal BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad distinction between normal and abnormal behaviousru=jective psychological disorder = whether ones behaviomuraadaptive o if someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they have a disorder o all is very subjective Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders caused by a interactionofereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological disorder regardless of environment several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors The Psychodynamic Perspective psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego o conflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological disorders www.notesolution.com minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for all three o defense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking The Medical Perspective illness of the mind Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phl egemmotional problems asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders o condition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition 18 /19 century quality and compassion improved psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective psychological disorders ar learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors caused by the persons interaction with his/her environment o NOT spontaneously within the person ex/ persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of tension it provides treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the positive regard of others o proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard www.notesolution.com THUS, they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others o define their personal VALUE primarily in terms of others reactions to them lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable, internal value as persons DEPRESSION!!!!! The Sociocultural Perspective cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviours as normal/abnormal culture bound syndromes psychological disorders that exist and occur in certain cultures The Biopsychosocial Perspective diathesis-stress model: accounts for psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his/her abilities to cope with them o the genes that are involved are not necessarily specific to particular disorders but may constitute a more general predisposition o the genes dont specifically CAUSE the psychological disorder rather it places a predisposition on the person to attain one may be predisposed to a psychological condition but not have encountered the stressors thatll trigger its development biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders o medical specialty devoted to the treatment of psychological disorders o a widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders www.notesolution.com the DSM-IV-TR describes psychological conditions using 5 different criteria, called axes AXIS 1 information on major psychological disorders that may develop during childhood o ex/ delirium, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders, dementia, amnesia AXIS 2 personality disorders o long term maladaptive traits that impair normal functioning AXIS 3 physical disorders, such as skin rashes or high blood pressure, accompanying the psychological disorder AXIS 4 severity of the stress that the person has experiences o details the source of the stress and indiciates its severity AXIS 5 describes overall level of psychological, social, or occupational functioning o estimates the extent to which a persons quality of life has been diminished by the disorder comorbid: the appearance of two or more disorders in a single person example of a situation from Axis 1-5 o Axis 1 alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder o Axis 2 anti-social personality disorder o Axis 3 alcohol cirrhosis o Axis 4 severe stress (divorce, loss of job) o Axis 5 GAF evaluation = 30 --> very serious impairment of functioning Some Problems with DSM-V-TR Classification the system focuses strongly on psychological factors, thus making it biased towards psychological disorders accuracy is not 100%...never is with psychological disorders www.notesolution.com
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