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PSYA02H3 (932)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 15 Social Psychology social psychology: branch of psychology that studies our social nature how the actual, imagine, or implied presence of others influences our thought, feelings, and behaviours our perception are affected by our interactions with others Social Cognition social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information Schemata and Social Cognition impression information: the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is o our impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a simple sum of the characteristics that we use to describe people Schema schema: a mental frame work or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing Central Traits someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and warm o impression of them = POSITIVE someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and cold o impression of them = LESS positive ^ central traits: organize and influence our understanding of other traits a person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits o these impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet other traits that have yet to be revealed o gives you early traits about the person and you act in a certain way due to that www.notesolution.com foolish women were more desirable than foolish men The Primacy Effect getting to know someone? Takes time requires many interactions primacy effect: tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them as the person speaks, we purposefully think about those behaviours and what they reveal about the persons qualities The Self self-concept: your knowledge, feelings, ideas about yourself. self identity o how you interpret yourself and interpret events that are relevant to defining who you are o dynamic; changes with experiences self: a persons distinct individuality self-schema: mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about yourself o cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute self concept thinking about ourselves in the present does not accurately reflect what well turn out to be in the future Culture and Social Psychology cross-cultural psych: studies the effects of culture on behavior differences in cultures o based on biological diet, genetics o based on ecological geography, climate, political system basic psychological processes are universal but are informed BY culture Markus and Kitayama TWO construals of the self that reflect cultural differences www.notesolution.com o the independent construal: uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others and self-reliance people have an influence on other people BUT ones self-concept is very independent from that o the interdependent construal: interconnectedness of people and the role that others play in developing an individuals self-concept the individual is sensitive to others .. what other say about individual affects individual Attribution attribution: the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behaviours Disposition versus Situation primary classification WE make concerning the cause of other peoples behaviours is determined by internal AND external factors external factors: stimuli in the physical and social environment internal factors: a persons traits, needs, and intentions most situations, people act a certain way we develop schemata for how we expect people to act in those situations characterize people as friendly, generous, suspicious, pessimistic etc o based on our past experiences with them, we place them under a Kelleys Theory of Attribution attribute the behaviour of other people to external/internal issues on the basis of three types of information o consensual behaviour: behaviour that is shared by many people behaviour that is similar from one person to the next refers to whether others behave identically in the given situation www.notesolution.com o distinctiveness: the extent to which a person behaves differently toward different people, events, or stimuli distinctiveness describes whether the behavior is unique to the particular circumstance or manifests across a wide variety of circumstances. behaviours that are distinctively associated with a particular situation are attribute to that external cause o consistency: the extent to which a persons behaviour is consistent across time toward another person, an event, or a stimulus refers to whether the individual behaves identically from case to case in the given situation if consistency is low, then it increases ones confusion Attributional Basis The Fundamental Attribution Error fundamental attribution error: the tendency to overestimate the significance of internal factors and underestimate the significance of external factors in explaining others behaviour o ex/ goalie gets scored onconclude that goalie lacks skill as opposed to the fact that his sight was blocked o ex/ VICTIM BLAMING = attribution error, very common belief in a just world: people believe that the world is a fair place in which people get what they deserve o people tend to blame the victim when misfortune or tragedy strikes o by doing so; it completes a just outcome for the person THUS protecting the belief that the world is fair o makes ppl believe that their long term efforts towards a just goal, will eventually be achieved blame poor for their predicament avoid having to deal with the unjust issue of poverty www.notesolution.com
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