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Chapter 11

PSYA02 chapter 11 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinking Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way Three main approaches when studying intelligence: differential, developmental, and information processing Differential approach: favors the development of tests that identity and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important I the classroom o Approach to study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems Developmental approach: studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world Information processing approach: focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problems Theories of Intelligence Intelligence tests yield a single number (IQ), however this doesnt mean that there is only one strand of intelligence o Those measuring athletic ability would make people run, jump, weight lift, etc; they would be measuring AQ (athletic quotient) Three theories of intelligence: Spearmans two-factor theory, information processing theory, and neuropsychological theory Spearmans two-factor theory o Charles Spearman a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors: G factor: factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, eduction (process of drawing, or bringing out- of figuring out from given facts) or relations, and eduction of correlates www.notesolution.com The general factor; comprising three qualitative principles of cognition Apprehension of experience: refers to peoples ability to perceive and understand what they experience Eduction of relations: refers to the ability to perceive the relation between two words (lawyer and client) Eduction of correlates: refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case (person whom a doctor works for is obviously a patient) S factor: factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task test Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests o Common factors in these tests would be particular abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one test o Determines which sets of tests forms a group If each persons score on several intelligence tests correlate well with one another, the tests or subjects measure the same factor o Factor loadings: express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Louis Thurstone extracted 7 factors when performing a factor analysis o Verbal comprehension o Verbal fluency o Number o Spatial visualization o Memory o Reasoning o Perceptual speed www.notesolution.com
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