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Chapter 12

PSYA02 chapter 12 notes

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John Bassili

Chapter 12 Lifespan Development Cross-sectional study: individuals of different ages are simultaneously compared with respect to some test or observation Longitudinal study: compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their lives Phases of lifespan o Prenatal age: conception through birth; highlights: rapid physical development of both nervous system and body o Infancy age: birth 2 years; highlights: motor development, attachment to primary caregiver o Childhood age: 18 months 12 years; highlights: increasing ability to think logically and reason abstractly, refinement of motor skills, peer influences o Adolescence age 13 years 20 years; highlights: thinking and reasoning become more adult-like, identity crisis, continued peer influences o Adulthood age: 20 years 65 years; highlights: love, committed relationship, career, stability and then decrease in physical abilities o Old age age: 65 years death; highlights: reflection on lifes work and accomplishments, physical health deteriorates, prepare for death, death Prenatal Development Prenatal period: the nine months between conception and birth o Divided into 3 developmental stages: zygotic, embryonic, and fetal Normal length of pregnancy is 266 days, or 38 weeks Development depends on genetic contribution from egg and sperm that determines the genotype and genetic instructions Stages of Prenatal Development Union of ovum and sperm (conception) is the starting point for prenatal development Zygote stage: first stage of prenatal development, during which the zygote divides many times and the internal organs begin to form www.notesolution.com o Lasts 2 weeks o Zygote single cell formed at conception o Consists of around 100 cells after first week and cells arrange in 2 layers, one for hair, skin, nervous system, and sensor organs, and the other for the digestive and respiratory systems and glands o Third layer appears near end of stage that develop into muscles and the circulatory and excretory system Embryonic stage: second stage of prenatal development, beginning at about 2 weeks and ending about 8 weeks after conception, during which heart begins to beat, brain starts to function, and most of the major body structures begin to form o Zygote transforms into embryo o Fast development o Brain and spinal cord start to function o Embryo is most susceptible to external chemical influences including alcohol and other drugs, or toxins produced by diseases like rubella Called teratogens o Teratogens: means malformation; substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects o Beginning of sexual development occurs; 23 chromosome pair determines sex o Gonads turn into ovaries or testes Presence/ absence of testes determines development of other sex organs o Androgens: primary class o sex hormones in males; most important androgen is testosterone o Development of female sex organs (uterus, vagina, labia) occurs naturally; doesnt need to be stimulated by hormones Fetal stage: third and final stage of prenatal development, lasts for about 7 months, beginning with the appearance of bone tissue and ending with birth www.notesolution.com nd o Fetus is about 4 cm by end of 2 month and weighs about 30 g o Development of major organs is completed and bones and muscles start to rd develop by end of 3 month; is now 8 cm and 90 g o May show movement (kicking) th o By end of 4 month, fetus is about 15 cm and 170 g Now sleeping and waking regularly o Movements are strong enough to be felt by mother, and heartbeat is loud enough to be heard through stethoscope; light and sound sensitivity th o During 6 month fetus is 30 cm and 700 g o During last 2 months, fetus gains around 250 g per week o On average about 50 cm and 3.5 kg Threats to Normal Prenatal Development Most important factor in fetuss development is the mothers diet what she eats is the fetuss only source of nutrition If mother is malnourished, the fetuss nervous system develops abnormally, and intellectual deficits may result Teratogens can cause birth defects Taking drugs is a behavior that is completely controlled by the mother Tetracycline can cause irregularities in bones and discoloration of teeth Cocaine produces increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and smaller head circumference o Some babies are born addicted, and show withdrawal symptoms like hyperactivity, irritability, tremors, and vomiting Cigarette smoking reduces supply of oxygen, increases rate of miscarriages, low- birth weight babies, increased chance of premature birth, and more births by C- section o Disability with processing speech sounds and may be related to behavior problems www.notesolution.com Alcohol use can cause pre- and postnatal birth deficits, deformations of eyes and mouth, low brain mass, other brain and central nervous system abnormalities, and heart deformation o Fetal alcohol syndrome Some teratogens are hard to avoid chemicals in the environment due to pollution and pesticides Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood Infant and toddler refers to babies up to the age of 2 They quickly develop skills that shape the behavior of the adults with whom they interact Motor Development Normal motor development is dictated by maturation of the muscles and the nervous system Maturation: any relatively stable change in thought, behavior, or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experience An infants most important movements at birth are reflexes o Automatic movements in response to stimuli Most important reflexes rooting, sucking, and swallowing Turning head to direction of where baby was touched rooting Object making contact with babys lips should make baby open their mouth and suck on it Swallowing when milk, or another liquid enters babys mouth Development of motor skills require maturation of childs nervous system, and practice Perceptual Development At the time of birth, a childs senses are already functioning Auditory can detect sound, bright light will elicit closing and opening of eyes and squinting, cold objects/ pinching will result in crying due to sense of touch, flailing of www.notesolution.com
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