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Chapter 13

PSYA02 chapter 13 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 13 – Motivation and Emotion Motivation: a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individual’s behavior What is Motivation? We behave in a particular way to get something or to avoid something Motivation is proactive (forward-looking); similar to concepts of reinforcements Motivation can also be reactive (in response to conditions present at the time) Biological Needs Regulatory behavior: a behavior that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis o I.e. eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire, and putting on a warm coat Homeostasis: process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level Regulatory systems have 4 essential features o System variable: variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism I.e. temperature in a heating system o Set point: optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism Set point for body temperature recorded is 37 C o Detector: in a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point o Correctional mechanism: in a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Negative feedback: the effect produces by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action www.notesolution.com Drive reduction hypothesis: a drive (resulting from a physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivational behavior Drive: a condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes an organism’s behavior Critiques of hypothesis o Almost always impossible to measure o If we examine our own behavior, we may find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing Physiology of Reinforcement Electrical stimulation of the brain is reinforcing because it activates the same system that is activated by natural reinforcers and by drugs that people commonly abuse Optimum-Level Theory Hypothesis that organisms will perform behavior that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level 2 forms of exploration related to arousal o Diversive exploration – response to under stimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity of the stimuli the organism tries to come in contact with o Specific exploration – response to over stimulation (usually because of a specific need, such as lack of food or water) that leads to the needed item, thereby decreasing the organism’s drive level Perseverance The tendency to continue to perform a behavior even when it is not being reinforced Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement o Experiencing failure in our past facilitates persistence of later performance, but only if failure is eventually followed by success o Extinction-induced aggression www.notesolution.com Extinction causes other members of species to become eliciting stimuli for aggressive behavior and thereby establish the opportunity to aggress as a reinforcing stimuli Overjustification Hypothesis o Superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated behavior will undermine intrinsic motivation o When children were told to draw, some were told they’d be given a reward, some weren’t told they’d be given a reward, and some didn’t get a reward o Those who were told they’d get the reward didn’t draw as much days after the experiment because they lost interest since there was no reward for them o Other kids didn’t stop Learned Helplessness o Response to exposure to an inescapable aversive stimulus, characterized by reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task; thought to play a role in the development of some psychological disturbances o Learning that the consequences of behavior are independent of one’s behavior – an aversive outcome can’t be avoided Eating What Starts a Meal? Physiological Factors o Cannon and Washburn – eating begins when we have an empty stomach Walls of an empty stomach rub together to produce ‘hunger pangs’ ‘rumble theory’ o Depletion of the body’s store of nutrients is a more likely cause of hunger o Short-term reservoir stores carbohydrates located in cells of muscles and liver Glycogen: insoluble carbohydrate that can be synthesized from glucose or converted to it; stores nutrients www.notesolution.com o Long-term reservoir stores fats found beneath the skin and in various locations in the abdomen Adipose tissue (fat tissue) consists of cells capable of absorbing nutrients from the blood, converting them to triglycerides (fats), and storing them Keeps us alive during prolonged fasting o Glucostatic hypothesis: hunger is caused by a low level or availability of glucose, a condition that is monitored by specialized sensory neurons Cultural and Social Factors o We learn when and what to eat due to habit What Stops a Meal? The physiological factors that stop a meal are divided into 2 groups o Those that arise from the immediate effects of eating a meal o Those that are produced by the longer-term consequences Obesity Social and physical complications Difficult to treat People need to be motivated to lose weight Need to realize that weight reduction programs are designed for health reasons rather than aesthetic reasons Unhappiness and depression seem to be effects of obesity, not causes Habit plays important role in control of food intake Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by attempts to lose weight, sometimes to the point of starvation o Decrease in eating o ‘loss of appetite’ www.notesolution.com o People limit their intake of food despite intense preoccupation with food and its preparation o Intense fear of becoming obese even if they are dangerously thin Bulimia nervosa: loss of control over food intake characterized by gorging binges followed by self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives; accompanied by feelings of guilt and depression Sexual Behavior Effects of Sex Hormones on Behavior Sex hormones – hormones secreted by the testes and ovaries
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