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Canada (158,177)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYA02H3 (931)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

PSYA02 chapter 17 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 17 The Nature and Cause of Psychological Disorders Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders Emil Kraepelin comprehensive system of psychological disorders Etiology: the causes or origins of a disorder What is Abnormal? Abnormal any departure from the norm o Commonly used to refer to characteristics we dislike or fear Psychological disorders cause distress or discomfort and interfere with peoples ability to lead satisfying, productive lives Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders Caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors Genetic component can be strong in some cases The Psychodynamic Perspective o Freuds early work o Psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the 3 components of the mind: id, ego, and superego o Conflicts may centre on attempts to control potentially harmful expressions of sexual or aggressive impulses o Conflicts can become severe and minds defense mechanisms cant produce a resolution o Defense mechanisms distort reality or the individual begins to function in some areas of life in a manner characteristic of an earlier developmental stage o Symptoms can include extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted perceptions and patters on thinking, and paralysis or blindness for which there is no physical cause The Medical Perspective www.notesolution.com o Origins from ancient Greek physician Hippocrates o Excess of 4 humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood and phlegm) led to emotional problems o Developed concept of mental illness illness of the mind o Early asylums were poorly run and the patients problems were poorly understood and often mistreated Conditions were so poor that they may have contributed to the illnesses o Many people with psychological disorders are treated on an outpatient basis with drugs that help decrease, and in some cases eliminate, the symptoms of psychological disorders o Only those with very severe and intractable psychological problems are institutionalized for long periods of time o Medical model is based on the ideas that psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system, and that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical illnesses o Examples of psychological disorders with biological factors: schizophrenia and bipolar disorder The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective o Holds that psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can best be understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors o Disorder is caused by the persons interaction with their environment o It is not merely the environment that matters; a persons ongoing subjective interpretation of the events taking place in his or her environment o Therapists encourage their clients to replace or substitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviors with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective o Proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard www.notesolution.com
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