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Chapter 10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
David Nussbaum
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10 Quantitative Data Analysis Statistical Approach Descriptive Statistics: used to describe the variables in a study, both one at a time and in terms of their relations to each other. Ie age, gender, socioeconomic status, and other such variables Inferential Statistics: used to estimate characteristics of a population from those we found in a random sample of that population. This can be used to test hypotheses about the relationship between variables. Levels of Measurement Matters -4 levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. -different properties so different statistics Univariate Distributions -is a probability of frequency distribution of only one variable. Freqency Distributions Freqency Distributions: shows the number of cases and/or the percentage of cases who receive each possible score on a variable. -require grouping after data is collected when there are more than 15 to 20 values to begin with and if the distribution of the variable will be clearer or more meaningful if some of the values are combined. -categories should be logically defensible; should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive so that every case should be classifiable in one and only one category. Graphing -bar charts(good for nominal) and histograms most commonly used for frequency distributions. -Histogram: displays a frequency distribution of a quantitative variable. Beware of Deceptive Graphs -look at the scale -start axis at 0, bars should have same width, equal axis length Descriptive Statistics -which ever type of display is used, the primary concern is to display accurately the distribution’s shape- shows how cases are distributed across the values of the variable. -3 important features of shape: -Central Tendency -summarized used one of mode, median or mean. To choose appropriate measure of central tendency, the researcher must consider level of measurement, the skewness of the distribution of the variable and the purpose for which the statistic is used. -mode=most frequent value= Probability Average. For nominal scale it is the only measure of central tendency. Bimodal(2 modes)/unimodal (1 mode) -Median: position average or the point that divides the distribution in half (the 50 th percentile). Useless for nominal (can’t be put in order). -Mean: arithmetic average. Used for ordinal/interval/ratio -mean vs median: take into account level of measurement, shape of dis
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