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Chapter 10

PSYB01 Chapter 10 exam prep- key terms.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 10: Quantitative Data Analysis Key Terms Term Page Definition Bar Chart 319 A graphic for qualitative variables in which the variable's distribution is displayed with solid bars separated by spaces Between- 338 Calculated by comparing the difference of each of the means of groups the individual groups with the overall or grans mean for all scores Variance in the experiment; the between-groups variance represents systematic variance due to the manipulation of the independent variable Bimodal 323 A distribution that has two nonadjacent categories with about the same number of cases, and these categories have more cases than any others Central 322 The most common value (for variables measured at the nominal tendency level) or the value around which cases tend to center (for a quantitative variable) Chi-square 343 An inferential statistic used to test hypotheses about relationships (X^2) test between two or more categorical variables in a contingency table of independen ce Contingenc 342 A bivariate (two variable) or higher order distribution showing the y table distribution of one variable for each category of another variable. Also called cross tabulation. Often used with chi-square (X^2) test of independence to tabulate and analyze relationship between two or more categorical variables Correlation 000 A statistic that measures the extent to which two variables are associated but not necessarily causally related Critical t- 335 The value that the t-statistic must exceed in order to reject the value null hypothesis at a certain level of probability Degrees of 336 In tests of statistical significance, the number of observation that freedom are free to vary in estimating a population parameter Descriptive 314 Statistics used to describe the distribution of and relationship statistics among variables, usually in the form of averages and standard deviations (a statistical measure of variability) Effect size 342 A standardized measure of association; often the difference between the mean of the experimental group and the mean of the control group on the dependent variable, adjusted for the average variability in the two groups. The effect size measures the strength of the predicted or hypothesized relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable f-test 334 ANOVA computes an f-statistic, which is the ratio of two types of variance: systematic and error variance Frequency 316 Numerical display showing the number of cases, and usually the distribution percentage of case (the relative frequencies), corresponding to each value or group of values of a variable Histogram 320 A graphic for quantitative variables in which the variable's distribution is displayed with adjacent bars Inferential 315 A mathematical tool for estimating how likely it is that a statistical statistics result based on data from a random sample is representative of the population from which the sample is assumed to have been selected Mean 323 The arithmetic, or weighted, average, computed by adding up the value of all the cases and dividing by the total number of cases Median 323 The position average, or the point that divides a distribution in half (the 50th percentile) Mode 338 The most frequent value is a distribution; also termed the probability average Multifactor 338 Used for experimental designs with more than one factor or ANOVA independent variable varied simultaneously. In comparison to the simple ANOVA, the multifactor ANOVA is much more computationally complex given that there are both main and interaction effects that need to be tested Normal 332 Refer to normal curve Distribution Null 333 The hypothesis of no differences or no relationship, which the hypothesis researcher tries to reject, nullify, or disprove One-factor 337 Refer to simple ANOVA ANOVA One-tailed 335 In order to reject the null hypothesis, the value of the test statistic test
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