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PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 3

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 3: Ethics in Behavioural Research  “Obedience” Experiments by Stanley Milgram - shocking participants for every answer they get wrong -> led to debate about the extent of deception that can be tolerated and how harm should be evaluated  Code of Conduct - considering how to practice the discipline ethically, whether the practice involves personal problems or research to learn about human beahviour or a mix of both Historical Background  Nuremberg War Crime Trials - horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors as a series of military tribunals, mostly notable for the prosecution of members of the political, military, economic leaderships  Tuskegee Syphilis Study - collecting data to learn about the “natural” course of illness as many participants were not informed about their illness and were denied treatment until 1972 even though there was a cure (penicillin) developed in the 1950s  Belmont Report - 1979 ,created to protect the violation of human rights, 3 ethical principles:  Respect for the persons: treating persons as autonomous agents and those with diminished autonomy (self-government)  Beneficence - minimize harm and maximize benefits  Justice - fair distribution of benefits and risks in research  these principles were turn into regulations adopted in 1992 known as Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects  Institutional Review Board (IRB) - reviewing research proposals as federal regulations require institutions seeking federal funding for biomedical/behavioural research on human subjects  Office for Protection from Research Risks - to promote review of ethical issues, regulations require that IRBs include members with diverse backgrounds Ethical Principles  most recent one adopted in 2002, containing 151 enforceable ethical standards and 5 general principles which are general “aspirational” values capturing the discipline’s “moral vision” and the ethical standards apply to all APA members enforced by the APA Ethics Committee  violations of the code can be investigated by the APA Ethics Committee  Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence - psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work/take care to do no harm  psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those they interact and the welfare of animal subjects on research  avoid harming research participants, obtain informed consent, avoid deception and main privacy/confidentiality  effective debriefing after an experiment can help reduce risks of harm due to the use of deception in the experiment  deception’s goal is to get subjects “to accept as true what is false or give a false impression”  Diana Baumrind suggested that personal “introspection” would be sufficient to test Milgram’s experiment an
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