Textbook Notes (368,401)
Canada (161,862)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 4

psyb01 Chapter 4.docx

4 Pages
93 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
David Nussbaum
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4: Conceptualization and Measurement Developing and Defining Constructs - psychological theories are important as they provide a conceptual framework for studies, specifying meaning of key terms and identifies how variables are measured/operationalized, purpose and rationale of a research - conceptual framework is a network of interlocking relationships linking theoretical ideas to concrete variables and their measurements Theoretical Constructs - abstract concepts are referred to as Constructs (something specified in theories to explain, describe, predict empirical findings) - e.g. intelligence, personality, memory, anxiety - measured by multiple indicators such as physiological recordings, objective pencil-and-paper tests, behaviour rating scales Operational Definitions of Constructs - constructs need to be translated into an operational definition (how to measure dependent variable and how to produce independent variables) - construct of anxiety is operationalized in 3 distinct variables - measure of psychophysiology, observational ratings, and self-report - laboratory study by Bushman and Baumeister investigating conditions that produce interpersonal violence (personal violence is the construct) - experimenters aim to design ecologically valid studies (the extent to which a study/experiment approximates the actual real-life phenomenon under study) - people with high levels of narcissism would respond aggressively to the person they believed insulted them by giving them negative comments on essays written by participants ( independent variable (narcissism) -> intervening variable (perceived threat) -> dependent variable (blasting decibel level/insult from essay) Building Constructs - Corey L.M. Keyes coined the term Positive Psychology (learning about human thriving, flourishing, optimism, joy and capabilities) in his paper “A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health” - a framework to study attitudes, actions and feelings - Keyes tried to find meaning of two constructs (mental health and mental illness) , defining mental health as an enduring senses of well-being and happiness a person experiences in life and for defining the construct of mental illness e referred to (DSM-III-R) - the DSM defines 2 components must be necessary in order to establish the presence of a diagnosable mental disorder (the presence of a particular symptom/disorder presented in the DSM, and evidence the symptoms interfere with dally life functioning in areas such as work, leisure, school, interpersonal relationships) - Keyes identified 4 forms of mental illness: major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder and alcohol dependence Measurement of Psychological Constructs - Measurement - assignment of numerals to variables according to objective rules that reflect features of a construct that is being studied - e.g. for anxiety, 3 variables: galvanic skin response (GSR) is a psychophysiological variable used to measure the physical aspects of anxiety, scores on a self-report measure of psychological aspects of anxiety such as a MC test, third variable for the construct of anxiety could use as a form of measurement an observation rating scale 1 Advantages of Multiple Methods - Keyes used two kinds of measurement methods: self-report and interview which allowed him to classify participants into 5 groups and concluded that suffering be worse than the presence of a diagnosable mental illness Levels of Management (4 scales): stats used to describe the varaition 1) Nominal Level of Measurement - aka categorical/qualitative level identifies variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation that varies in kind or quality but not in amount - refer to the values of nominal variables as “attributes” instead of values (e.g. “state” referring to the U.S, measurement of gender) -> a nominal scale classifies data according to category only - Co-occurring or Comorboid Conditions - when participants meet criteria for more than one diagnosis at any one time - attributes used to be measured/categorized, cases must be Mutually Exclusive (a variable’s attributes/value are mutually exclusive if every case can have only one attribute) and Exhaustive (a variable’s attributes are exhaustive when every case can be classified into one of the categories) - when a variable’s attributes are mutually exclusive and exhaustive, every case corresponds to one and only attribute - The Special Case of Dichotomies - Dichotomies (variables having only two values), used when variables are quantitative (e.g. gender varies in kind and quality but not the amount in a study stays the same) 2) Ordinal Level of Measurement - >, < distinctions, referred to as a ranking scale (allows ranking such as frequency of occurrence and preferences) - Likert Scale – names after Rensis Likert, used in a study where participants described how they felt in the past 30 days with numbered responses (1=never, 2=little, 3=some, 4=most, 5=all the time) - the coding doesn’t represent equal distance (e.g. all=5 and none=1, you can’t say all the time is 5 times greater than none at all) - other examples using this measurement: grades, SES, military rank - nominal variables in this measurement must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive as each case assigned must be no more than one value 3) Interval Level of Measurement – has characteristics of nominal (it gives a name/category for each observation e.g. 1=male, 2=female) and ordinal (responses are ranked) - has no true zero point (e.g. 0 degrees F doesn’t mean there’s no temperature at all) -> we can’t say the ration of 20F to 10F is the same as 100F to 50F or 80F is twice as hot as 40F - numbers can be added/subtracted, values must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive 4) Ration Level of Measurement – numbers indicating values of the variable represent fixed measuring units and an absolute zero point (no value) - e.g. no income = $0, weight has a zero point, speed in terms of time in track races, Kelvin temp. - numbers can be added/subtracted/multiplied/divided since there is a zero point and values must be mutually exclusive/exhaustive - e.g. 10 is 2 higher than 8 and 2 times greater than 5 Comparisons of Levels of Management - Nominal is the only way to classify categorically - Nonparametric Stats – test hypotheses for variabl
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit