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PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 3 - PSYB01  Milgram ‘Obedience’ experiment: He asked the surveys students at Yale first and asked them to indicate at what level they would terminate their “shocks”? The average they predicted was 9.35 (strong shock). Only one student predicted higher but barely. (1960) o The actual level of shock that was administered by 40 New Haven adults who volunteered for the experiment was 24.53 (extreme intensity). Just short of danger shock. o 62.5% (25) complied with the experimenter’s demands all the way to the top of the scale.  Nuremberg War Crime Trials--> exposed horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and others in the name of science  one of them was the Tuskegee syphilis study--> collected data to learn about the 'natural' course of the illness by following 399 low income African American men in the 1930s o the participants were not informed of their illness and were denied treatment until 1972, even though a cure (penicillin) was developed in the 50s  Code of Conduct has 83 standards in American Psychological Association 2002.  Belmont Report established three basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects in 1979. 1) Respect for persons--> treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy 2) Beneficence--> minimizing possible harm and maximizing benefits 3) Justice--> distributing benefits and risks of research fairly  Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects--> this policy has shaped the course of social science research ever since and you will have to take it into account as you design your own research investigations  federal regulations require that every institution that seeks federal funding for biomedical or behavioural research on human subjects have an institutional review board (IRB) that reviews research proposals  The Office for Protection from Research Risks – in the National Institutes of Health monitors IRB, with the exception of research involving drugs (which is the responsibility of Federal Food and Drug Administration)  know the 5 principles of Ethics on page 71  Ethical standards for research under 4 headings that reflect the five APA principles o To achieve valid results – Not personal interests. It has to be pursuit of objective knowledge about human behaviour that motivates and justifies our investigations. o To maintain professional integrity – Open and honest. Disclosing their methods and honest in presenting their findings. o To protect research subjects o To encourage appropriate application  Achieving Valid Results (Principle B) Milgram’s book in 1974 makes compelling case for his commitment to achieving valid results but other psychologists said it wasn’t because it was in a laboratory and maybe the people didn’t really believe it was real. Milgram argued that his results were replicated.  Maintaining Professional Integrity (Principle C) – Milgram published everything which is vital in maintaining openness and honesty. Sometimes researchers
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