Chapter 3 - PSYB01
Milgram ‘Obedience’ experiment: He asked the surveys students at Yale first and asked them to indicate
at what level they would terminate their “shocks”? The average they predicted was 9.35 (strong shock).
Only one student predicted higher but barely. (1960)
o The actual level of shock that was administered by 40 New Haven adults who volunteered for the
experiment was 24.53 (extreme intensity). Just short of danger shock.
o 62.5% (25) complied with the experimenter’s demands all the way to the top of the scale.
Nuremberg War Crime Trials--> exposed horrific medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and
others in the name of science
one of them was the Tuskegee syphilis study--> collected data to learn about the 'natural' course of the
illness by following 399 low income African American men in the 1930s
o the participants were not informed of their illness and were denied treatment until 1972, even
though a cure (penicillin) was developed in the 50s
Code of Conduct has 83 standards in American Psychological Association 2002.
Belmont Report established three basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects in 1979.
1) Respect for persons--> treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished
2) Beneficence--> minimizing possible harm and maximizing benefits
3) Justice--> distributing benefits and risks of research fairly
Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects--> this policy has shaped the course of social
science research ever since and you will have to take it into account as you design your own research
federal regulations require that every institution that seeks federal funding for biomedical or behavioural
research on human subjects have an institutional review board (IRB) that reviews research proposals
The Office for Protection from Research Risks – in the National Institutes of Health monitors IRB, with
the exception of research involving drugs (which is the responsibility of Federal Food and Drug
know the 5 principles of Ethics on page 71
Ethical standards for research under 4 headings that reflect the five APA principles
o To achieve valid results – Not personal interests. It has to be pursuit of objective knowledge
about human behaviour that motivates and justifies our investigations.
o To maintain professional integrity – Open and honest. Disclosing their methods and honest in
presenting their findings.
o To protect research subjects
o To encourage appropriate application
Achieving Valid Results (Principle B) Milgram’s book in 1974 makes compelling case for his commitment
to achieving valid results but other psychologists said it wasn’t because it was in a laboratory and maybe
the people didn’t really believe it was real. Milgram argued that his results were replicated.
Maintaining Professional Integrity (Principle C) – Milgram published everything which is vital in
maintaining openness and honesty. Sometimes researchers