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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

5 Pages

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David Nussbaum

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Chapter 1- Uncommon Sense - Schwartz and Colleagues gave the “Maximization Scale” – this set of 13 statements – to thousands of people and found the highest score was 75. They wanted to see how happy recent college graduates are with the job choices they made. o While the researchers did not use a sharp cutoff to distinguish maximizers from satisficers, they considered people whose average ratings are higher than 4 to be maximizers and those whose average ratings are lower than the midpoint as satisficers. o Maximizer means you are thought to be a person who always has to perform an exhaustive check of all the available choices to make sure you pick the best. You generally exhaust all possibilities before making your final choice o Satisficer – sets standards for yourself and you will choose the first option that meets that standard. o They found maximizers found jobs that paid 20% more on average than the satisficers’ jobs but maximizers were less satisfied with the outcome of their job search and were more pessimistic, stressed, tired, worried, and depressed. o Maximizers felt worse even though they had done better than satisficers, because considereing so many choices led to unrealistic expectations that increased the likelihood of feelings of regrets, disappointment, and sadness. - Psychology: scientific study of people, the mind and the behaviour—focuses attention on virtually endless questions about how we feel, think, behave, believe and interact - Scientific Method: these rules reflect procedures and techniques for conducting and evaluating psychological research. Together these rules, procedures and techniques form a unified conceptual framework—a form way of thinking about a problem, idea or question - Empiricism: knowledge is gained thru experience, observation and experiment - In science, the term empirical is used to denote info gained objectively from observation or experimentation - This info referred to as data is described as empirical because it can be measured and evaluated statistically - Anecdotal evidence: impressions/opinions of just one person, usually, that are not translated into a quantifiable form - Scientific method is crucial to research because it minimizes bias by providing the rules by which observations are collected and results are evaluated - Theory: defined as a coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe, understand and explain psychological or behavioural phenomena - Theories address questions of ‘how’ - A testable hypothesis is framed as a statement, often in a form of a prediction that is made prior to the actual collection of data - Described as a priori, meaning that it exists before experimentation or observation - There are hypotheses that are formulated after the data are collected and analyzed, this is described as post hoc which poses serious problems for the scientific method, post hoc hypotheses increase the likelihood of error and bias - A variable is defined as any characteristic that can take on different values or can vary across research participants - Variables can include age, gender, weight, height, education, any attribute that can assume multiple values or can vary in people - A population is defined as any entire collection of people, animals, plants, things all of which can be referred to as units from which we may collect info - A sample is a group of units selected from a larger group (population) - How a researcher selects a sample from a larger population is important for the scientific method - A researcher tries to maximize what is referred to as generalizability-- the extent to which findings that are derived from a sample can be applied to a wider population - A major reason for the scientific method is to combat bias, a key source of potential bias can originate from how a sample is selected - All stats are based on the logical probability - Reliability: consistency. Not all data are created as equal. A reliable study is one that produces data that can be replicated, repeated with the same results - Validity: the extent to which a study provides a true measure of what it is meant to investigate - How a study sample is selected from a population and how representative it is can influence validity - Confounds or confounding variables: are unwanted sources of influence that can be viewed to the dismay of the researcher as viable alternative explanations for the result of the study - Confounds or confounding variables – are unwanted sources of influence that can be viewed, much to the dismay of the researcher, as viable alternative explanations for the result of a study. - Researchers use what is referred to as a control variable in order to measure an unwanted source of influence that could invalidate the conclusions of a study - An experiment is a controlled investigation in which one or more variables are manipulated - Independent variable: an element of the study that you as a res
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