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Chapter 2

PSYB01 Chapter 2 textbook notes

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 2 Where to Start The motivation to conduct scientific research derives from a natural curiosity about the world. Hypothesis and Predictions Most research studies are attempts to test a hypothesis formulated by the researcher. A hypothesis is really a type of idea or question; it makes a statement about something that may be true. A hypothesis therefore is only a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it. Sometimes hypotheses are very general and informal questions (ie. Do males and females differ in their drinking ability). In such cases, the researchers develop a procedure for collecting data to answer the questions. These are informal hypotheses or simply questions about behavior. Usually formal hypotheses state that two or more variables are related to one another (ie. Crowding results in reduced performance on cognitive tasks). Such hypotheses are formulated on the basis of past research and theoretical considerations. The researcher will then design an experiment to test the hypothesis. At this point the experimenter will make a specific prediction concerning the outcome of the experiment. If the prediction is confirmed by the results, the hypothesis is supported; if the prediction is not confirmed, we will either reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods. A hypothesis can only be supported, it cannot be proven. Who we Study: A Note on Terminology Participants are also referred to as subjects. The publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends using the term participants when describing humans who take part in psychological research. Respondents individuals who take part in survey research. Informants people who help researchers understand the dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings; the term originated in anthropological and sociological research. Sources of Ideas Five sources of ideas are: 1. Common sense 2. Observation of the world 3. Theories 4. Past research 5. Practical problems Common Sense: 1 www.notesolution.com
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