Textbook Notes (362,880)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Anna Nagy (283)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 1 The Scientific Approach The Limitations of Intuition of Authority o When you rely on intuition, you accept unquestioningly what your own personal judgement or a single story about one persons experience tells you about the world o The intuitive approach involves finding an explanation for our own behaviour or the behaviour of others E.g. you might develop an explanation for why you keep having conflicts w a co-worker, such as that other person wants my job o Other times, intuition is used to explain intriguing events that you observe, as in the case of concluding that adoption increases the chances of conception among couples having difficulty conceiving a child o A problem w intuition is that numerous cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptions, and so we draw wrong conclusions about cause and effect o Gilovich points out that there is in fact no relationship bw adoption and subsequent pregnancy, according to scientific research So why do we hold this belief? Bc of a cognitive bias called illusory correlation that occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together When an adoption is closely followed by a pregnancy, our attention is drawn to the situation, and we are biased to conclude that there must be a causal connection o A scientific approach requires much more evidence before conclusions can be drawn Authority o Aristotle was concerned w the factors associated w persuasion or attitude change o He argued that we are more likely to be persuaded by a speaker who seems prestigious, trustworthy, and respectable than by one who lacks such qualities o Statements may not be true, the scientific approach rejects the notion that one can accept on faith the statements of any authority Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach o Scientific skepticism means that ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations o The fundamental characteristic of the scientific method is empiricism knowledge is based on observations www.notesolution.com
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