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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Textbook Notes

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 2 Hypotheses and Predictions Hypothesis a type of idea or question; it makes a statement about something that may be true, it is a tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it o Once the hypothesis is proposed, data must be gathered and evaluated in terms of whether the evidence is consistent or inconsistent w the hypothesis o Hypothesis can be general, informal questions (Do males and females differ in their drinking ability). In such cases, the researchers develop a procedure for collecting data to answer the questions. These are informal hypotheses or simply questions about behaviour. o Formal hypotheses state that two or more variables are related (Crowding results in reduced performance on cognitive tasks) o Such hypotheses are formulated on the basis of past research and theoretical considerations. The research will then design an experiment to test the hypothesis. o At this point the experimenter will make a specific prediction (a statement that makes an assertion concerning what will occur in a particular research investigation) concerning the outcome of the experiment. o If the prediction is confirmed by the results, the hypothesis is supported; if the prediction is not confirmed, we will either reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods. o When the results of a study confirms a prediction, the hypothesis is only supported, not proven Who We Study: A Note on Terminology o Participants refer to the individuals who participate in research projects, aka subjects The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends using the term participants when describing humans who take part in psychological research. o Respondents individuals who take part in survey research o Informants people who help researchers understand the dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings Sources of Ideas 1. Common sense 2. Observation of the would around us 3. Theories 4. Past research 5. Practical problems www.notesolution.com
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