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Chapter 14

Chapter 14.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 14 *External validity: the extent to which findings may be generalized. GENERALIZING TO OTHER POPULATIONS OF RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS  COLLEGE STUDENTS (and rats) o The potential problem is that such studies use a highly restricted population. o The student population tend to young and posses the characteristics of late adolescence a sense of self identity that is still developing, social and political attitudes that are in a state of flux, a high need for peer approval and unstable peer relationships. o Students are most similar to each other than adults are similar to other adults. o How are college students like lab rats they are easy to obtain  VOLUNTEERS o External validity may be limited because the data obtained from volunteers may be different from what would be obtained with a more general sample o Volunteers differ in many ways from the non volunteers more educated, higher socioeconomic status, more social. o And the title of the study does influence who signs up.  INTERNET RESEARCH o Important implications for external validity  The use of Internet is still more common in a particular demographic.  And on top of that finding the volunteers.  GENDER CONSIDERATIONS o Gender bias may arise in psychological research, including confounding gender with age or job status and selecting response measures that are gender stereotypes.  LOCALE o The location that participants are recruited from can also have an effect o Participants from one local may differ from participants from a different local. o Thus, study conducted at one location may not generalize to participants at a different location  GENERALIZATION AS A STATISTICAL INTERACTION o An interaction occurs when a relationship between variables exists under one condition but not under another or when the nature of the relationship is different in one condition than in another.  IN DEFENSE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS (and rats) o Criticisms of the use of any particular type of subject, such as college students, should be backed with good reasons that a relationship would not be found with other types of subjects. o Replication of the research studies provides a safeguard against the limited external validity o The value of studying rats has been demonstrated by research that applies findings to humans CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS  People say that psychology is built on the study of WEIRD people (Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic)  Comparisons: western cultures are individualistic and eastern cultures are collectivist  Social support styles are different in both the cultures.  Similarities: low waist to hip ratio is attractive in all cultures. GENERALIZING TO OTHER EXPERIMENTERS  The person who conducts the experiment is source of external validity too  Some important characteristics: the experimenter’s personality, gender and experience  A warm friendly experimenter might y
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