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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 11: SINGLE CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH SINGLE CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS -single case experimental designs: single-subject designs previously; now single case and single participant -often seen in clinical, counseling, educational, and other applied settings -developed from need to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single research participant -subject’s behavior is measured over time during a baseline control period -manipulation introduced during a treatment period and subject’s behavior continues to be observed -change in subject’s behavior from baseline to treatment periods is evidence for effectiveness of manipulation -problem: there could be many explanations for the change other than the experimental treatment (alternative explanations) Reversal Designs -demonstrate reversibility of manipulation to show that manipulation of the iv had an effect -reversal design: A (baseline period)  B (treatment period)  A (baseline period) -called an ABA design -sometimes called withdrawal design—recognition of fact that treatment is removed -fact that behavior changed when treatment was introduced and reversed when treatment was withdrawn is evidence for its effectiveness -single case designs appropriate for these variables by maintaining a long treatment period -ABA can be improved by extending it to an ABAB design in which exptal treatment is introduced a 2 time or even ABABAB design -this is to address 2 problems with ABA reversal design 1) single reversal not extremely powerful evidence for effectiveness of treatment; observed reversal might have been due to random fluctuation in behavior -much less likely if treatment has been shown to have effect 2 or more times 2) Ethical; doesn’t seem right to end design with withdrawal of treatment that may be beneficial for participant -sequence ends with treatment rather than withdrawal of treatment -control group may also be used in reversal design to see effect Multiple Baseline Designs -reversal of some behaviours may be impossible or unethical -if manipulation is effective, a change in behavior will be immediately observed and change will continue to be reflected in further measures of behaviour -multiple baseline design: effectiveness of treatment is demonstrated when a behaviour changes only after manipulation is introduced -to demonstrate effectiveness of treatment, such a change must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out possibility that other events were responsible -several variations to this design -in multiple baseline across subjects, behaviour of several subjects is measured over time; manipulation introduced at diff time for each subject -in multiple baseline across behaviours, several diff behaviours of a single subject are measured over time; same manipulation applied to each of behaviours at diff times -in multiple baseline across situations, same behaviour is measured in diff settings; manipulation introduced at a diff time in each setting Replications in Single Case Designs -procedures for use with single subject can be replicated with other subjects -grouping data from number of subjects by using group means can sometimes give misleading picture of individual responses to manipulation -manipulation may be effective in changing behaviour of some subjects but not others PROGRAM EVALUATION -program evaluation: research on programs that are proposed and implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals -may be implemented in schools, work settings, or entire communities -applies the many research approaches to investigate these types of programs -Campbell urged culture of evaluation in which all programs are honestly evaluated to determine whether they’re effective -initial focus of evaluation research was “outcome evaluation”: did program result in + outcome for which it was designed -Rossi et al identify 5 types of evaluations; each attempts to answer a diff question about program 1) evaluation of need; needs assessment studies ask whether there are problems that need to be addressed in a target population 2) after identifying needs, program can be designed to address them; program must be based on valid assumptions about causes of problems and rationale of proposed program -assessment of program theory may involve collaboration of researchers, service providers, and prospective clients of program to determine that proposed program does address needs of target population in appropriate ways 3) process evaluation; program monitoring -evaluation researcher monitors it to determine whether it’s reaching target population, it’s attracting enough clients, and whether staff is providing planned services -researcher wants assurance that program is doing what it’s supposed to do -important b/c we wouldn’t want to conclude that program itself is ineffective if implementation of program is what’s not working 4) outcome evaluation; impact assessment: are intended outcomes of program being realized? -need to know what participants of program are like and need to know what they would be like if they had not completed program -ideally true experimental design with random assignment to conditions would be carried out to answer questions about outcomes 5) efficiency assessment: researchers must determine whether it’s “worth it” QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS -quasi-experimental designs: address need to study the effect of an iv in settings in which control features of true experimental designs can’t be achieved -allows us to examine impact of an iv on a dv but causal inference is much more difficult b/c quasi-expts lack important features of true expts such as random assignment to conditions One-Group Posttest-Only Design -one-group posttest-only design: “one-shot case study” lacks crucial element of a true expt: a control or comparison group -must be some sort of comparison condition to enable you to interpret results
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