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Chapter 7-12

PSYB01 Ch.7-12 Textbook Terms Final.docx

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David Nussbaum

Ch 7 Factorial(IV) designs-can vary the IV b/w subj,others can vary them w/in subj,and still others can combine b/e subj. and w/in subj manipulation of the IV.complex experimental design in which all conditions of the IV are combined with all conditions of the othr IV. The main effects of each IV as well as the interaction effects between and amooung the IV can be statistically tested Multifactorial-experiments that hv 2+ independent variable; provides direct tests of the main effects of each IV as well as any interaction effect b/w and among the IV; economical research design of human emotional experience. testing of effects of all possible combo of the levels of IV on the DV. 2x2 factorial design-two IV,each w/ two levels or value, resulting in four conditions. In this notation, the number of numbers tells how many factors or IV there are, and the number values tell how many levels of the IV. i.e. 3x4 (3 by 4) indicates two IV,one with 3 lvls and othr is 4-multiply simply the number to number of treatment groups 12 Embodies cognition-conceptual model for us to understand how we experience,perceive,and communicate emotional info.We perceive and think bout our emotion, we re-enact or re-experience its perceptual,somatovisceral,and motoric features(collectively referred as embodiment). By covert manipulation of facial expression causally affected how emotional info is processed. Approach-avoidance motivation-both can share info value as signals of approach,propelling behaviour forward,setting the stae for direct expression,confrontation or ‘fight’; conversely, they may fuel avoidance – inhibition,in flight from negative stimuli, of potential danger and threat Social signalling system-facial experssions of emotion and gaze direction operate as a social signaling system that governs our basic evolved behavioural tendencies for approach or avoidance Experiemental stimuli-materials that are used to constructing an IV Experimental task-a task that participants perform that is used as an IV Column means-calc by averaging the columns of the table. Row means-calc by averging the columns of the rows of the table Main effect-the effects of each IV on a DV,in a factorial experiment ,the effects of one IV on a DV are averged over all levels on another IV Interaction-occurs when the effects of one level of the IV depend on the particular level of the other IV Simple main effect-compoares the influence of one level of an IV at a given level of another IV Cross-over interaction-ina 2x2 design, a type of interaction in which the effects of one IV on a DV are reversed at diff levels of the other IV Additivity-the absence of interaction b/w IV(no interaction) Social brain hypothesis-intelligent thought is shaped by out ‘social connectivity’-the degree to which we enjoy friendships,love,companionship,and intimacy Staged/event manipulation-employedwhen primary goal is to induce a particular psychological state in research participants. Social exclusion-can be manipulated experimentally,belief of ending up alone in life w/o loved ones,friends and acquintances. Encoding-in cognitive experiemnts, the condition in which info is presented and studied Recall-in cognitive experiment where info is tested on recall Analysis of variance-inferential statistic(ANOVA); also kknown as F-test; evaluate the likelihood that results obtained in the study are due to chance. Used when there are 2+ levels of an IV/for complex experimental designs w/ 2+ IV; nearly all sets of data there will be variability; for eaxh main effect and interaction, ANOVA computes an Fstatistic,which is a ration of two types of variance: systematic and error F-test-statistical significance test;ANOVA computes f statistic,which is a ratio of two types of variance:systematic and error simple ANOVA-only on IV varied systematically across more than 2+ levels(Simple analysis of variance/one-factor analysis of variance/one-factor ANOVA) Systematic variance—sum the deviation of the means for each experimental condition from the grand mean.goal of the experiment is to maximize(b/w group variance) Error varience-goal of the experiment is to minimize; deviation of indiv scores in each group/condition from its respective mean(w/in group variance) F statistic-ratio between group variance/ to within group variance.under null hypothesis f ratio should be 1, meaning that b/w group and w/in variance is the same; the larger the F-ratio the more likely the results of experiemtn are stat significant and not due to chance Ch 8 Subject variables-in a quasiexperimental design, selection of participants on the basis of some characteristic that can be measured or described but can not be directly manipulated,such as intelligence,gender,height,weight Natural treatment-exposures to events emanate from the ‘real world’ define how participants are selected,a natural occurring event is treated as a quasi-independent variable, which can be measured but cannot be manipulated Quasiexperiment-‘as if’ or ‘to a degree’,resembles a true experiment but the experimenter can manipulate/control one or more IV; a research design in which there is a comparison group that is comparable with the experimental group in critical ways, but participants are not randomly assigned to the experimental and comparison groups; high in ecological validity Two major types of quasi-experimental design: Nonequivalent-control-group designs-have experimental and comparison groups that designed before the treatment occurs,either by an existing subj characteristic or an already occurred natural treatment and are not created by random assignment Before-and-after designs-have a pretest and posttest but no comparison group. In other words, the participants exposed to the treatment serve, a an earlier time, as their own controls Ex post facto-‘after the fact’-analysis,that which is done afterward of its effect on a particular DV such as memory,suicide rates,grades; conditions of a study determines after rather before (a priori) some variation or event has naturally occurred Mixed-factorial design-combines both b/w and w/in subj. factors; one IV is varied b/w subj. and the othr IV is varied w/in subj. Ecological validity-high generalizability and high realism Two methods of selection of a control group can be used: Individual matching –individ cases in the treatment group are matched w/ similar individ in the control group; may create a control group that is very similar to the experimental group,howver in many studies not possible to match the most imp. variables Aggregate matching- when random assignment not possible,identifies a comparison group that matches the treatment group in the aggregate rather than trying to match individ cases; finsding a comparison group that has similar distribution in key variables:same avrg age,same % of female;quasiexperiment participants cant choose Regression artifact-a threat to internal validity that occurs when subj. who are chosen for a study cause of their extreme scors on th DV become less extreme on the posttest due to natural cyclical/episodic change in the variable; can occur anytime in a pretest measure is used for matching Regression to the mean-trend for extreme scores on a measure to move closer to the group average when retested due to inherent unrealiability of measurement; imp when random assignment not used and groups matched by pretest measure Interrupted-time-series design-in a quasiexperiments, examines the effects of naturally occurring treatment on the behaviour of a large group of people; before and after a naturally occurring treatment Multiple group befoe-and after design-a type of quasiexperimental design in which several before and after comparisions are made involving the same IV and DV but diff groups. Repeated-measures panel designs-a quasiexperimental design consisting of several pretest and posttest observations of the same group Time series designs-a quasiexpeirmental design sonsisting of many pretest nd posttest observations of the same group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)-a widely used technique that records brain at work, in real time, while an indivd performs a task Correlation coefficient®-vary from -1 -0-+1; the number of value indicates the strength of the relationship b/w the 2 variables-a larger number indicates a stronger relationship; the sign indicates the direction; a positive correlation indicates that as one variable increases, s too does the other; a negative correlation indicates that as one variable increases the other decreases. Scatter diagrams-graph of correlation between 2 variables Amygdala-almond-shaped found deep in the brain; plays a role in fusing memories with emotion Hippocampus-crucial in remembering,role in providing emotional tone and intensity for memories. Control condition-comparision condition in a w/in-subj. design Baseline-used as a comparison condition for assessing the effect of a treatment Contructivist theory-emphasize general cognitive processes such as categorizing,storytelling,and persuasion tools by which the mind creates cultural meaning Frame switching-in a constructivist thoeyr, when person alternate b/w 2 internalized mental sets,as w/ biculturals alternate between two internalized cultural mental sets Priming-exposure to a stimulus facilitates responses to a subsequent event Cross-sectional methos-taking groups of people of different ages and then comparing these age groups at one time on psychological processes such as moral reasoning,problem solving, or intelligence (but confounded by cohort effects and period effects) Cohort effects-confound that occurs in cross-sect method result from comparing groups of persons who are different ages at one point in time Cohort-group of individ that share certain characteristics such as age,year of graduation Period effects-an inherent confound for a cross-sect. method when historical influences that may affect responses to the DV. Longitudinal method-the same research participants are followed over time(avoid cohort/period effects tht confounds in cross-sect) Attrition-dropout that can threaten the sample size of longitunal study Secular trends-when cannot attribute longitunal results to hypothesized age-related developmental processes but rather to genral changes that have takenplace in society Cross-sequential design-quasiexperimental design used in fdevelopmental psychology in which several diff ages are sampled at several diff time periods; req 2+ age groups tested at 2+ itime intervals; allows for effects of: cross-sectional,longitunal,time lag Time-lag design-effects of time of testing can be investigated while holding age constant by comparing only those partcipants who were of the same age but tested in diff years e.g comparing 20 yr olds tested in 1990 w/ 20 yr olds tested in 1995 Magnetice resonance imaging(MRI)-structural anatomy of the brain Cerebral cortex-brain’s outer layer ‘bark’, thought to be a seat of higher thinking; thinke
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