Textbook Notes (363,065)
Canada (158,171)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Chapter 3

PSYB01 Textbook Notes Chapter 3

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 3: Ethical Research Ethical Research In Canada The Tri-Council and Its Policy Statement • In Canada, researchers and institutions adhere to the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans. “Tri-Council” is a common way to refer to the three federally funded research granting agencies: the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), and the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). • In 1998 the Tri-Council published the first Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS), which became the first standard Canadian Ethics Code to guide all research involving humans, and replacing all guidelines developed by some individual agencies as early as the 1970s. Historical, Legal, and International Context • The Nuremberg Code, which was developed in response to horrific human experimentation during WWII, was a catalyst for modern international debate and policies for respecting human dignity in medical and behavioural research. Core Principles Guiding Research with Human Participants • The aim of research ethics codes generally, including the TCPS, is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the dignity and inherent worth of all human beings. Three basic ethical principles express the value of ensuring human dignity, and are specified in the TCPS and other documents: respect of persons, concern for the welfare, and justice. - To show respect for persons, researchers must respect the autonomy of research participants, and protect those who have “developing, impaired or diminished autonomy.” Respecting autonomy means enabling people to choose participation freely and without interference. - To show concern for welfare, researchers must attempt to minimize risks associated with participating in research, while maximizing the benefits of that research to individual participants and to society. - To show justice, researchers must treat people fairly and equitably by distributing the benefits and burdens of participating in research. Designing Research To Uphold The Core Principles Promote Concern for Welfare by Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Benefits • The principle of concern for welfare refers to the need for research to maximize benefits and minimizing any possible harmful effects of participation. • In decisions about the ethics of research, we must calculate potential risks and benefits that are likely to result; this is called a risk-benefits analysis. • Risk of Physical Harm: Some procedures could conceivably cause some physical harm to participants. For example, researchers have administered alcohol to investigate the effects of intoxication on decision making, and have deprived people of sleep during different sleep phases to investigate the effects of attention. The risks in such procedures require that great care be taken to make them ethically acceptable. • Rick of Stress: Participants may experience psychological stress during research. For example, participants might be told that they will deliver a speech in front of an evaluative audience, receive a few minutes to prepare the speech, and go on to deliver the speech. • Risk of Losing Privacy and Confidentiality: Another risk is the loss of expected privacy and confidentiality. Promote Respect for Persons Through Informed Consent • The TCPS principle of respect for persons states that participants are treated as autonomous; they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research. • The key way to apply this principle is informed consent: potential participants in a research project should be provided with all information that might influence their decision about whether to participate. • Informed Consent Form: Potential participants are usually provided with some type of informed consent form that contains the information they need to make their decision. The content will typically cover: 1) The purpose of the research 2) Procedures that will be used, including time involved 3) Risks and benefits to the participants and in general 4) Any compensation 5) How confidentially will be protected 6) Assurance of voluntary participation and permission to withdraw 7) Contact information for questions about the research and about the ethics of the research. • Researchers do not need to tell participants exactly what is being studied, but the consent form must include all information that could affect a participant’s choice to participate. • Autonomy Issue: informed consent seems simple enough; how
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.