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Chapter 3

PSYB01 - Chapter 3.docx

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David Nussbaum

PSYB01 Chapter 3: Ethics in Behavioral Research Code of Conduct – 83 standards adopted (updated) in 2002 to guide psychologists’ clinical and research practices Historical Background Belmont Report – developed in 1979 to establish 3 basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects 1. Respect for Persons – treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy 2. Beneficence – minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefits 3. Justice – distributing benefits and risks of research fairly Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects – specific regulations based on the Belmont Report principles that were adopted in 1991 by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration Institutional Review Boards – A group of organizational and community representatives required by the deferral law to review the ethical issues in all proposed research that is federally funded, involves human subjects, or has any potential for harm to subjects Office for Protection from Research Risks – Monitors IRBs with the exception of research involving drugs (which is the responsibility of the Federal Food and Drug Administration) Ethical Principles The American Psychological Association (APA)’s principles of specific ethical standards: 1. Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence - psychologists strive to benefit those and take care to do no harm - attempt to solve conflict in a responsible fashion that avoids/minimizes harm 2. Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility - establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work - maintain professional and scientific responsibilities to society and scientific communities - cannot be for personal advantage 3. Principle C: Integrity - seek to promote accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in the science, teaching and practice of psychology - do not steal, cheat or engage in fraud, subterfuge or intentional misrepresentation of fact 4. Principle D: Justice - psychologists recognize fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from contributions of psych and to equal quality in the processes, procedures and services 5. Principle E: Respect for people’s rights and dignity -respect the dignity and worth of all ppl and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination - respect cultural, individual and role differences (including age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socio- economic status) - eliminate the effect of biases and prejudice 1 PSYB01 Achieving Valid Results (Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility) - cannot ask people to answer questions, submit to observations, or participate in experimental procedures if we are simply seeking to verify our own existing prejudices Maintaining professional integrity (Principle C) - scientists need to be open in disclosing their methods and honest in presenting their findings - in order to assess the validity of a researcher’s conclusions and the ethics of their procedures, you need to know exactly how research was conducted Protecting Research participants (Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence) 1. Avoid
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