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Chapter 8

PSYB01 Chapter 8

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Anna Nagy

PSYB01Chapter 8 Notes Experimental DesignConfounding And Internal ValidityResearcher manipulates the independent variable to create groups that differ in levels of variable then compares groups in terms of their scores on dependent variableAll other variables are kept constant through1 Direct experimental control 2 Randomization Cofounding variable Variable that varies along with independent variable Occurs when effects of independent variable and uncontrolled variable are intertwined Cannot determine which of the variable is responsible for observed effect Would not be a factor if the variable is held constant in both conditions Good experimental designeliminate possible confounding that results in alternative explanation Internal validity When results of experiment confidently attributed to effect of independent variable Must conduct experiment that only independent variable can be cause of results Independent Groups DesignIndependent groups design also calledbetweensubjects designdifferent participants are assigned to each level of the independent variable usingrandom assignment This means that the decision to assign an individual to a particular level is completely due to chancePlanning A Basic Experiment For now we will focus on experiments in which there is one independent variable that has two levels an experimental group and a control group A researcher using any experimental design must 1 obtain two equivalent groups of participants 2 introduce the independent variable and 3 measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variableSelection differences The people selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way In other words we seek a similar mix of individual differences across both groups Simplest experimental design has 2 variables1 Independent variable Have 2 levels of Experimental groups Control group2 Dependent variableExperimental method involves control over extraneous variables through either keeping such variable constant Experimental control or using randomization to make sure extraneous variable will affect both groups equally Simple experimental can take one of 2 forms1 Posttestonly design 2 PretestPosttest design PosttestOnly DesignPosttestOnly DesignMust obtain 2 equivalent groups of participantsIndependent variable
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