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PSYB01H3 (581)
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Chapter 11

PSYB01 Chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB01 - Chapter 11 Single Case , Quasi-Experimental and Developmental Research Single Case Experimental Designs  Single Case experimental designs:  Effect of independent variable must inferred from experiment with only one participant .  Need to determine whether experimental manipulation had effect on single participant . 1) Subject’s behavior is measured over time during baseline control periods .  Baseline: Subjects behavior during control period before introduction of experimental manipulation . 2) Manipulation is introduced during treatment period . 3) Behavior of subjects is continues to be observed .  Change in behavior from baseline to treatment period is evidence for manipulation effectiveness .  Have issue in how to determine that the manipulation of independent variable had an effect .  By reversing manipulation in reversal design . Reversal Design  Reversal design: Demonstrate reversibility of manipulation to show effect in how it’s effect in variable.  Known as ABA design, or withdrawal design .  Requires behavior be observed during Baseline control period and again during treatment period .  And also during second baseline period after experimental treatment has removed .  Design can be improved by extending to ABAB design .  Experimental treatment is introduced a second time .  Provide opportunity to observe second reversal when treatment is introduced again .  Control group also may be used in reversal design . Multiple Baseline Design  Multiple Baseline Design: Use in irreversible treatment .  Effectiveness of treatment demonstrated when behavior changes only after manipulation is introduced .  To demonstrate the effectiveness of treatment:  Changes must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out possibilities of other events.  Several variation of multiple baseline design: 1) Multiple baseline across subjects: Behavior of several subjects is measured over time .  For each subject, manipulation is introduced at different point in time .  Can rule out explanations based on chance/historical events . 2) Multiple baseline across behavior: Several different behavior of single subject are measured over time .  Same manipulation is applied to each of behaviors at different times .  e.g. reward system applied to different behavior at different times . 3) Multiple baseline across situation: Same behavior is measured in different setting .  At home/work, manipulation is introduced at different time in each setting . Replications in Single Case Designs  Procedure for use with single subject can be replicated with other subjects .  Greatly enhance the generalizability of results .  Single case research present the result from each subject individually, rather than group data/ overall means .  Useful for studying many research problems, not require complex statistical analyses .  Valuable for someone who applying some change technique in natural environment .  e.g. teacher trying a new technique in classroom . Program Evaluation  Program Evaluation: Research on program that are proposed and implemented .  To achieve some positive effect on group of individuals .  e.g. Drug abuse resistance education (DARE ) program in school .  ”Outcome evaluation” : The initial focus of evaluation research .  e.g. asking did program result in positive outcome for which it was designed .  Rossi identifies 5 types of evaluations: as five phase of evaluation process: 1) Needs Assessment: Evaluation of need:  Needs assessments asks whether there’s problem need to addressed in target population . 2) Program Theory Assessment: Question addresses program theory .  Program must be based on valid assumption about causes of problem and rationale .  Assessment of program theory: Involve collaboration of researchers, service provider etc.  To determine proposed program do address needs of target population in appropriate way . 3) Process evaluation: or program monitoring  Monitors to determine it’s reaching the target population when program is under way .  To determine whether it’s attracting enough clients etc.  To obtain assurance that program is doing what it’s supposed to do . 4) Outcome Evaluation / impact assessment:  To determine does intended outcome of program being realized .  Must devise a way of measuring outcome .  experimental design with random assignment will carry out to answer question about outcome . 5) Efficiency assessment:  Researcher must determine whether it’s “worth it” .  Cost of program must weighted against its benefits . Quasi-Experimental Designs  Quasi-experimental designs: Address the need to study the effect of independent variable in settings .  Which control features of true experimental designs cannot be achieved . 
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