Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,366)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 1

Chapt 1 psyb01.docx

5 Pages

Course Code
David Nussbaum

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapt 1 scientific method: veritable “rules” of the game of research. - reflects procedures and techniques - together, these rules, procedures and techniques for a unified conceptual framework ex. just as any game has a set of rules, procedures and techniques to play, so does the scientific method lay a foundation of how info is collected empiricism: knowledge is gained through experience, observation and experiment - data is described as empirical b/c it can be measured and used statistically - anecdotal evidence is impressions/opinions of (usually) one person, and cannot be translated into a quantifiable form ex. investigative journalism - scientific method minimalizes bias by providing rules by which observations are collected and results are evaluated - bias, often indicates unfair practices that wrongly discriminate against others is-ought: “is” questions are questions that are scientific/researchable, can be answered by facts/empirical data “ought” questions are questions that call upon cultural values and ethical considerations but cannot answer solely on the basis of scientific evidence theory: coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe, understand, and explain psychological and behavioural phenomena testable hypotheses: framed as a statement, often in form of a prediction that is made prior to the actual collection of data - testable hypotheses are is described as a priori meaning that it exists before experimentation or observation - a priori hypothesis constitute a key feature in scientific method - by formulating a hypothesis before data collection and analysis, a scientist is less likely to be prone to error and bias post hoc: “after this”, pose serious probs for scientific method. Post hoc hypotheses increase likelihood of error and bias - the more you look, the more likely it is that one of these will by chance be wrongly accepted as true variable: any characteristic that can take on different values or can vary across research participants - can include age, gender, weight, height, education, attitude, income, etc our observations are collected systematically and quantified by sampling a population: defined as any entire collection of people, animals, plants or things all which can be referred to as units from which we may collect information - b/c a pop. Is too large to study entirely, a sample is generally selected for study sample: a group of units selected from a larger group that is known as the population generalizability: findings that are derived from a sample can be applied to a wider population case studies can be seriously flawed by selecting those cases that fit preconceived ideas - “cherry picking” – deliberately picking only cases that support your view while ignoring those opposing your view sample bias: some members of the population are less likely than others to be included in the study - scientific method requires collection of observations, test scores, ratings, etc and are categorized systematically and numeric values are assigned/computed - and the numeric values are what constitute as empirical evidence - scientific method uses statistics to test relationships between and among objective, quantifiable measures that are derived from either experimentation or observation - all statistics are based on the logic of probability - statistical evidence provides a means to evaluate or test a theory two important standards that are used to judge the scientific quality of methods and techniques as well as the results that they produce 1. Reliability: also means consistency. Not all data are created as equal. A reliable study is one that produces data that can be replicated (repeated with the same results) -> greater confidence in reliability 2. Validity: the extent to which a study provides a true measure of what it is meant to investigate - a reliable study may not necessarily be valid - “how true are our conclusions?” - in evaluating validity, you will learn to look for what are known as confounds/confounding variables: unwanted sources of influence that can be viewed as viable alternative explanations for the result of a study - in many studies, researchers use control variables in order to measure an unwanted source of influence that could invalidate the conclusions of a study simplified version of scientific method 1. Observing and thinking -> 2. Formulate a question -> 3.develop a hypothesis -> 4. Interpret with caution (could lead directly to 6.reject hypothesis) 5. Conduct a study 6. Accept or reject hypothesis TRUE EXPERIMENTS: random assignment of participants to groups and manipulation of one or more independent variables experiment: a controlled investigation in which one or more variables are manipulated independent variable: an element of the study that you as a research systematically manipulate dependent variable: the observed effect, result or outcome that is measured in response to a systematic change in the independent variable Random assignment: helps to ensure that research participants are similar prior to the manipulation of the independent variable QUASI EXPERIMENTS: experiments in which random assignment is not possible to grou
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.