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Chapter 2

Chapt 2 - psyb01.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
David Nussbaum
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapt 2 experimental and non experimental designs: studies that use naturalistic observation methodology are non experimental in that actions and events are carefully measured and catalogued but independent variables cannot be directly manipulated - non experimental includes quasiexperimental, correlational, survey, and single- subject or small-N research ex. examining the relationship of smiling and positive mood using a nonexperimental design, you might have partipcants watch a comedy film and record # of times participants smiled, then have participants complete a questionnaire on their mood -> still cannot conclude that there is a casual relationship between smiling and positive mood - experimental can be used when researchers want to test cause and effect ex. investigating whether smiling causes positive changes in emotional feelings - in an experimental design, a researcher is able to exercise control over the variable or variables that are assumed to be the causal agents producing thepredicted effect - scientific understanding entails two distinct but related processes: description and explanation DESCRIPTION Conceptual definition: provides the meaning of an abstract term such as intelligence, anxiety or emotion - demarcates a semantic or linguistic meaning of a psychological term (texts and language) - similar to what you would find in a dictionary Operational definition: indicates how a concept is coded, measured or quantified EXPLANATION - can include both prediction as well as establishing cause and effect - causality requires 3 kinds of evidence: 1. temporal precedence: establishes that the cause precedes the effect ex. smoking causes lung cancer is data demonstrating temporal precedence: smoking cigarettes occurred first, and lung cancer tragically followed 2. Covariation of the cause and effect: when the cause is present, the effect occurs and when the cause is absent, the effect does not occur ex. people who smoke contract lung cancer and people who don’t smoke don’t contract lung cancer 3. Alternative explanations: a researcher must show nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect; that there is no plausible explanation for the relationship ex. suppose a third variable was involved in our smoking example, i.e social class, could explain the relationship of smoking and lung cancer b/c of the socio-economic strata - confounding and third variables are problems in human studies when researchers attempt to test whether changes in an independent variable causes changes in the dependent variable - scientific understanding through description and explanation lead to practical application basic research/applied research: addresses fundamental questions about the nature of abstract psychological processes and ideas, such as emotion, intelligence, reasoning and social behaviour program evaluation: studies the effects on behaviour of large-scale policy changes as well social reforms and innovations occurring in government, schools, courts, prisons, businesses, health care, housing and so forth - science often starts with a simple observation which can serve as a source of both evidence and ideas serendipity effect: increasing the chances of accidentally discovering something fortunate autonomic nervous system: regulates bodily reactions to stress, such as perspiration, rapid heartbeat, muscular tension, and dryness of mouth James-Lange theory: addresses the “chicken-and-egg” question by stating that the physiological changes come first, followed by the experience of emotional feelings Cannon-Bard theory: opposite of james lange theory, states that emotional feelings first then physiological changes happen ex. seeing a bear, you feel scared then you tense up? or you tense up then you feel scared(J-L theory) embodiment theory of emotion: proposes a dynamic interplay of specific bodily states and their associated symptoms schematic of the embodiment theory of emotion: a) when people adopt emotion-specific bodily postures, they report experiencing the associated emotions b) when people make facial expressions or emotional gestures, their perceptions and impressions are affected c) inhibiting people’s motor movements can interfere with their experience of emotion journals: constitute scientific literature peer reviewed publications fall into one of two categories: 1. empirical articles: reports on a particular study and is written in a certain format divided with an Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion 2. Review article: examines several studies of a particular phenomenon, such as facial expressions of emotion popular science: often written by eminent scientists who aim to explain science for a general audience science journalism: often focuses on recent developments in science that are judged newsworthy - lively, engaging and free of technical jargon - lacks critical sense of proportionality, cautiousness, and tentativeness that is fundamental to the scientific method secondary sources: second hand media accounts of scientific work - are the best clues that lead you to the primary source primary source: the first hand empirical report published in a peer-reviewed journal INDUCTIVE RESEARCH: most often used in non experimental studies, such as those that use naturalistic observation methods - often used in qualitative research Inductive reasoning: Theory Data (reality: what we observe) -> (ideas: what we think) ethnography: (naturalistic observation design studies people in their natural settings so that their) behaviours and words can be put into proper context - observation must be systematic, must be conducted carefully, precise description that allows for consistent or reliable cataloging of data and the orderly classification and analysis of that info - qualitative researchers use natural
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