Textbook Notes (362,870)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 1: Maximizers vs Satisfiers 1. Maximizers more likely to compare all the available choices before making the best informed decision 2. Satisfiers set a standard and picks the choice that is closest to the standard 3. When tested for their job satisfaction a. Maximizers more likely to be dissatisfied with their job even though they made up to 20% more money than satisfiers i. Also more likely to fantasize about jobs they didn’t apply for ii.Doing better but feeling worse 4. Conclusion: a. More choices  less satisfaction The scientific method 1. Rules of research for conducting and evaluating psychological research 2. Minimizes bias by providing rules by which observations are collected and how results are evaluated a. Bias indicates unfair practices that wrongly discriminate against others 3. The scientific method exists as a countervailing force to biases that operate at virtually all steps in the research process and that can distort and negate a study 4. Origins of the scientific method: a. Empiricism i. Holds that knowledge is gained through experience, observation, and experiment ii.Empirical 1. Used to denote information gained objectively from observation or experimentation a. Information = data i. That can be measured and evaluated statistically ii. Empirical evidence against which all scientific knowledge is tested b. Empiricism vs anecdotal evidence i. Anecdotal evidence 1. Impressions or opinions of just one person 2. Not translated into quantifiable form a. E.g. investigative journalism What is a scientific question? 1. Philosophers distinguish between two types of questions a. Is questions i. Answered by facts or empirical data ii. These answers are independent of social, cultural, political and religious preference iii. Questions arise from is questions that are best addressed through scientific research b. Ought questions i. Call upon cultural values and ethical considerations ii. Cannot be answered solely on the basis of scientific evidence iii. Address the values inherent in laws and customs and are influenced by beliefs that can reflect ideology, politics and interpretation of rights iv. Scientific method can contribute towards an answer, but will not directly result in a definitive one 2. Scientific method a. Aims to answer scientific questions b. Questions and their answers are commonly framed in reference to a particular theory 3. Theory a. Defined as a coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe, understand and explain psychological or behavioral phenomena b. Theories often address questions of how c. Ideas for studies arise from psychological theories d. Use the scientific method to assess the quality of any psychological theory From theory to testable hypothesis 1. Theory generates testable hypotheses a. Testable hypotheses are evaluated empirically with the scientific method 2. Testable hypothesis is framed as a statement a. Often in the form of a prediction that is made prior to the actual collection of data b. Considered a priori i. Meaning that it exists before experimentation or observation ii.Forming a hypothesis before data collection and analysis prevent bias 3. Post hoc hypothesis a. Pose problems for scientific method b. Increase the likelihood of error and bias c. Forming hypothesis after examining data collection Variables and measurement 1. Variable defined as any characteristic that can take on different values or can vary across research participants 2. The scientific method requires objective measurement of identifiable and specifiable variables a. If something cannot be measured, it cannot be investigated scientifically Scientific observation and data collection 1. Observations are often collected systematically and quantified by sampling a population a. Apopulation is defined as any entire collection of people, animals, plants or things from which we collect information b. Populations are often too large to study in its entirety  use a sample for study i. Sample defined as a group of units selected from the population 1. There are specific methods to select samples from the population in order to prevent error and bias as well as maximize internal and external validity a. Sample bias may occur if some members of the population are less likely than others to be included in the study  Leads to misleading results 2. Generalizability is important a. The extent to which findings that are derived from a sample can be applied to a wider population Evaluating evidence and theory 1. Statistics are used to test relationships between and among objective quantifiable measures that are derived from either experimentation or observation 2. Two important points a. Statistics are computed on the sample (not the population) i. The sample statistics are assumed to provide estimates of the populations b. All statistics are based on the logic of probability and they all use the same criterion for evaluation i. The question asked and answered by statistical tests: 1. What is the probability that the obtained results are due to chance a. If results are not due to chance, then the relationship established by a particular study is considered highly likely b. If results are due to chance, then there is no empirical evidence in support of the results 3. Statistics therefore used to provide a means to evaluate or test a theory Reliability and validity 1. Two standards used to judge the scientific quality of the methods used for studies and the results they produce are reliability and validity 2. Reliability a. Consistency b. Areliable study is one that produces data that can be replicated i. i.e. repeated with the same results 3. Validity a. The extent to which a study provides a true measure of what it is meant to investigate b. Areliable study may not be valid i. Get the same results from study to study (reliable)  but results may not reflect what it is investigating (valid / invalid) c. Aspects of how a study is designed and carried out can influence the extent to which its conclusions are judged as unbiased, meaningful and valid i. How a study sample is selected from a population and how representative it is can influence validity d. Validity deals with the question: i. How true are our conclusions? e. Evaluating validity i. Confounds and confounding variables are unwanted sources of influence that can be viewed as viable alternative explanations or the result of a study ii. Control variables are used in order to measure an unwanted source of influence that could invalidate the conclusions of a study 1. The aim is to be able to rule out the effect of a control variable on the results of a study Methods and tools of psychological research 1. True experiments a. Random assignment of participants to groups and manipulation of one or more independent variables 2. Quasiexperiments a. Experiments in which random assignment is not possible to groups 3. Descriptive research a. Studies that focus on the distribution of variables, the quantitative association of variables b. Causations cannot be established 4. Survey design a. Research in which information is obtained from a sample of individuals through their responses to specific questions 5. Performance based measures a. Studies of data collected from standardized tests 6. Single subject designs a. Systematic investigation of one or a few cases 7. Qualitative research a. Qualitative methods such as i. Participant observation ii. Intensive interviewing iii.Focus groups b. Used to study and understand phenomena in terms of the meanings people attach to them True experiments 1. Experiment a. Acontrolled investigation in which one or more variables are manipulated b. Variables will differ in the degree to which they can be controlled or manipulated 2. Three aspects of a true experiment a. Researcher controls who conducts the study b. What is studied c. How a study is conducted 3. Independent variable a. Aparticular aspect of the study that is systematically altered or manipulated b. Effects of the manipulation are examined and measured by the dependent variable 4. Dependent variable a. The observed effect, result, or outcome that is measured in response to a systematic change in the independent variable 5. True experiment a. Restricted to those independent variables that can be randomly assigned i. Random assignment helps to ensure that research participants are similar prior to the manipulation o the independent variable 1. Therefore any subsequent differences in the dependent variable can be attributed to manipulation of the independent variable rather than to confounding factors Quasiexperiments 1. True experiments are not practical for many scientific questions studied 2. Investigations that aim to examine the effects of an independent variable that cannot be directly manipulated or randomly assigned on a dependent variable are known as quasiexperiments 3. Examples of independent variables that cannot be randomly assigned a. Gender b. Race c. Age d. Ethnicity e. Socioeconomic status f. Personality traits g. Personal history 4. Studies select for particular independent variables or look for particular individuals
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.