Textbook Notes (367,969)
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Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Detailed

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Connie Boudens

Chapter 11 Single Case, Quasi-Experimental and Developmental Research SINGLE CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Single case experimental designs have traditionally been called single-subject designs, but now the terms used are single case and single participant Single case experiments were developed from a need to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an affect on a single research participant. In a single case deign, the subjects behavior is measured over time during a baseline control period. The manipulation is then introduced during a treatment period, and the subjects behavior continues to be observed Baseline: in a single case study design, the subjects behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation A change in the subjects behavior from baseline to treatment periods is evidence for the effectiveness of the manipulation. The problem, however, is that there could be many explanations for the change other than the experimental treatment (called alternative explanations) Reversal Designs o The basic issue in single case experiments is how determine that the manipulation of the independent variable has an affect o One method is to demonstrate the reversibility of the manipulation o A simple reversal design takes the following form: A (baseline period) B (treatment period) A (baseline period) o This design, called ABA design requires that behavior be observed during the baseline control (a) period and again during the treatment (b) period, and also during a second baseline (a) period after the experimental treatment has been removed (sometimes called a withdrawal design, in recognition of that fact that the treatment is removed or withdrawn) o The ABA design can be greatly improved by testing the treatment multiple times (ABAB or ABABAB) to address 2 problems with the ABA reversal design: first, a single reversal is not extremely powerful evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment and the single problem is ethical; it doesnt seem right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be very beneficial for the participant o A control group may also be used in a reversal design Multiple Baseline Designs www.notesolution.com
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