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Chapter 13

# Chapter 13 - Detailed & Easy to Learn

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Psychology

PSYB01H3

Connie Boudens

Fall

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Chapter 13 Understanding Research Results: Statistical Inference SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS Inferential statistics are necessary because the results of a given study are based on data obtained from a single sample of research participants Inferential statistics are used to determine whether we can, in fact, make statements that the results reflect what would happen if we were to conduct the experiment again and again with multiple samplesin essence, we are asking whether we can infer that the difference in the sample means reflect a true difference in the population means INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Equivalence of groups is achieved by experimentally controlling all other variables or by randomization o The assumption is that if they groups are equivalent, any differences in the dependent variable must be due to the effect of the independent variable There will always be some difference in the sample means, the difference will never be 0 o Difference in the sample means reflects any true difference in the population means plus any random error NULL AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Statistical inference begins with a statement of the null hypothesis and a research (or alternative) hypothesis The null hypothesis is simply that the population means are equalthe observed difference is due to random error The research hypothesis is that the population means are, in fact, not equal The null hypothesis states that the independent variable had no effect; the research hypothesis states that the independent variable did have an affect (Null0= H , Research1= H ) The logic of the null hypothesis is this: if we can determine that the null hypothesis is incorrect, then we can accept the research hypothesis as correctmeaning that the independent variable had an affect The null hypothesis is used because it is a very precise statementthe population means are exactly equalthis permits us to know precisely the probability of the outcome of the study occurring if the null hypothesis is correct www.notesolution.com

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