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Psychology (9,565)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Chapter 9

chapter 9 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Chapter 9: Conducting Experiments Selecting research participants - Samples may be drawn from the population using probability sampling or nonprobability sampling techniques - When it is important to accurately describe the population, you must use probability sampling - Much research, however, is more interested in testing hypotheses about behaviour. Here, the focus of the study is the relationships between the variables being studied and testing predictions derived from theories of behaviour. In such cases, the participants may be found in the easiest way possible using nonprobability haphazard or convenience sampling methods - In general, increasing your sample size increases the likelihood that your results will be statistically significant because larger samples provide more accurate estimates of population values Manipulating the independent variable - To manipulate an independent variable, you have to construct an operational definition of the variable. That is, you must turn a conceptual variable into a set of operations specific instructions, events, and stimuli to be presented to the research participants - In addition, the independent and dependent variables must be introduced within the context of the total experimental setting. This has been called setting the stage Setting the stage - In setting the stage, you usually have to do two things: (1) provide the participants with the informed consent information needed for your study and (2) explain to participants why the experiment is being conducted. - If participants know what you are studying, they may try to confirm the hypothesis, or they may try to look good by behaving in the most socially acceptable way - If you find that deception is necessary, you have a special obligation to address the deception when you debrief the participants at the conclusion of the experiment - How the variable is manipulated depends on the variable and the cost, practicality, and ethics of the procedures being considered Types of manipulations (1) straightforward manipulations - Straightforward manipulations manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations. Stimuli may be presented verbally, in written form, via videotape, or with a computer - Examples on pg 167-168 www.notesolution.com
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