Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Nussbaum D (52)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Text and Lecture Notes

8 Pages

Course Code
Nussbaum D

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 2THE FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION Because theory cannot be tested directly researchers perform experimental and nonexperimental studies to test hypotheses that are derived from theoryExperimental used when researcher wants to test cause and effect ex Whether smile causes emotional feelingsOnly experimental design tests for cause and effect relationships NonExperimental studies that use naturalistic observation methodologyActions and events are carefully measured and catalogued but independent variables cannot be directly manipulated and extraneous factors that can confound results are difficult to control Include quasiexperimental correlational survey singlesubject or smallN research Ex Examine relationship between smiling and positive mood have them watch comedy record number of times each person smiled and have they complete questionnaire on their mood o Cant conclude causal relationship between smiling and positive mood THE GOALS OF SCIENCE Paul Ekman did study regarding whether facial expressions are culturally determined or born with found took facial expression to different cultures they all had no problem interpreting it so discovered they are not socially learned but universal products of evolution7 major categories of facial expressions fear anger happiness contempt surprise disgust sadnessDESCRIPTION First need to describe phenomenon intend to study 2 ways researchers describe and define termsConceptuallyoperationally Conceptual Definitions provides meaning often rather broad in scope of abstract term such as intelligence anxiety or emotionlike what you would find in a dictionary Ex Intelligence general ability that enables an individual to comprehend the world and to deal effectively with its challengesOperational Definition follows conceptual definition indicates how concept is coded measured or quantifiedNo single operational def can capture fully the concept it is intended to measureFacial Action Coding System EkmanOperational definition of various facial expressions of emotions Defines specific combo of facial muscle movements that are universally and discretely generated when certain emotions are elicitedEye brow muscle corrugators superciliMuscle surrounding eyeorbicularis oculi parsCheek musclezygomaticus majorMuscle surrounding nose levator labii alesque nasiiEXPLANATION Establish predictive relationships text mentions causality but prof says no Determines causality of Hallmark of Explanation Predicts relationship between variables but does not meancausation Causality requires 3 kinds of evidence Temporal Precedence evidence that establishes that cause precedes effect o Ex Smoking causes lung cancerdata demonstrating temporal precedence that smoking occurred first and lung cancer followedCovariation of the cause and effect cause is present effect occurs and when cause is absent effect does not occur
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.