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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Quasiexperimental and Nonexperimental Designs

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Nussbaum D

Chapter 8Quasiexperimental and Nonexperimental DesignsQuasiexperimental DesignWe cant directly manipulate independent variables ie gender age ethnicity socioeconomic status SES locale diagnosis personality traits and person historySubject variables are selecting participants and the studying those affects on themdependent variablesNatural treatments are exposures to events situation or settings that emanate from the real worldindependent variablesQuasiexperimentquasiindependentquasi as ifto a degree resembling a true experiment except for the degree to which an experimenter can directly control and manipulate 1 ind variables randomly assign participant to experimental and control conditionsNonequivalentcontrolgroup designs Have experimental and comparison groups that are designated before treatment occurs and not be random assignmentBeforeandafter designs Have pretest and posttest but not comparison group the participants exposed to treatment serve as their own controlsNatural Treatments as QuasiIndependent VariablesPsychological effects of 911Quasiindependent variable 911cannot directly control or manipulate via random assignment exposure to 911Considered natural treatment created by events in real world ie war presidential assassination natural disastersResearcher can only provide afterthefact or ex post facto analysis Latin which is done afterwardSubject Variables as QuasiIndependent Variables911 w gender difference in response to 9112 quasiind Variables one is natural treatment 911 and other a subject variable genderie Comparing social attention and nonsocial attention as measured by speeded target detection in persons w schizo and in control group healthy volunteers y Diagnosis of schizo is quasiind Variable y Selected participants on subject variable of diagnosis and formed our experimental group based on presence of existing schizo And control group based on absence of schizo presented these 2 experimental tasks in counterbalanced order y Example of Quasiexperiment that used mixedfactorial design combines both between and mixed factorial designNonequivalent Control Group DesignsControl group can never be considered to be equivalent to the experimental group Their preexisting difference cannot be equalized by random assignment as would be the case in a true experimentmost common called nonequivalentcontrolgroup designMatching Individual matching individual cases in the treatment group are matched w similar individuals in the control group can lead to control group that is very similar to experimental group
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