Textbook Notes (363,383)
Canada (158,358)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Nussbaum D (52)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Uncommon Sense

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Nussbaum D

Chapter1Uncommon Sense Scientific Method and Human ReasoningDoing Better But Feeling Worse is the scientific study of people the mind and behaviourfocuses attention on virtually endlessPsychology questions about how we feel think behave believe and interactSchwartz and colleagues gave the Maximization Scalethis set of 13 statementsto 1000s of people and found the highest score was 75The Scientific Methodis the veritable rules of the game of research These rules reflect procedures and techniquesThe scientific methodfor conducting and evaluating psychological research These rules procedures and techniques form a unified conceptual frameworka formal way of thinking procedures and techniques to govern playThe origins of scientific method may be traced to school of philosophy called empiricism which holds that knowledge is gained through experience observation and experiment The term empirical is used to denote information grained objectively from observation or experimentation This information called data is described as empirical bc it can be measured and evaluated statistically which refers to impressionists opinions of 1 personEmpirical evidence differs from anecdotal evidence Scientific method is crucial to research bc it minimizes bias by providing the rules by which observations are collected and results are evaluated It often indicates unfair practises that wrongly discriminates against others But can come in different formsWhat is a Scientific QuestionPhilosophers often distinguish 2 types of questions those that they call is questions from those that they call oughtmay help us understand what is meant by scientific or questions This philosophical distinction called isoughtresearchable question These is questions many would argue are the exclusive domain of scientific research The ought questions that call upon cultural values and ethical considerations but cannot be answered solely on the basis of scientific evidenceThe scientific method aims to answer scientific questions Scientific questions and their answers are commonly framed in reference to a particular theory In psychology theory is defined as a coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe understand and explain psychological or behavioural phenomenaIn psychology theory often influences all aspects of a studyFrom Theory to Testable Hypothesis A testable hypothesis is framed as a statement often in the form of a prediction that is made prior to actual collection of data A testable hypothesis is described as a priori meaning that its exists before experimentation or observationconstitute a key feature of the scientific method By formulating hypotheses before data collection and analysis a scientist is less likely to be prone to error and bias by bending the theory to fit the numbers Hypotheses are formulated after the data is collected and analyzedposthoc Latin for after thisincrease the likelihood of error and bias Variables and Measurements is any characteristic that can take on different values or can vary across research participants Variables can A variable include age gender weight height education attitude income and any other attributeSystematic Observation and Data CollectionOften in research our observation are collected systematically and quantified by sampling a populationA population is any entire collection of peopleanimals plants or things all of which can be referred to as units from which we may collection information is a group of units selectedBc a population is usually too big a sample is generally selected for a study A sample from larger groups known as the population
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.