Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB01H3 (585)
Anna Nagy (283)
Chapter 1


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications and Issues Chapter 1: Introduction BASIC CONCEPTS WHAT A TEST IS? o Test: is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behavior or aid in the understanding and prediction of behavior. E.g. spelling test; measures how well someone spells or the extent to which someone has learned to spell a specific list of words o Test measures only a sample of behavior and error is always associated with a sampling process. o Test scores are not perfect measures of a behavior or characteristic, but they do add significantly to the prediction process. o Item: is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or evaluated ( e.g. classified, graded on a scale, or counted) In simple terms, items are the specific questions or problems that make up a test. o Psychological Testing: (educational test) is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior. There are many types of behavior: Overt Behavior- is an individuals observable activity. Covert Behavior- it takes place within an individual and cannot be directly observed. (e.g. feelings and thoughts) Psychological and educational tests measure past or current behavior; some also attempt to predict future behavior. o The scoring of tests can change dramatically depending on how a well-defined sample of individuals scores on a test. To deal with such problems of interpretation, psychologists make use of scales- which relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution o Scores on a test may be related to traits, which are enduring characteristics or tendencies to respond in a certain manner. o Test scores may also be related to the state, or the specific condition or status, of an individual TYPES OF TEST o Individual Tests: those that can be given to only one person at a time www.notesolution.com
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