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Chapter 2


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University of Toronto Scarborough

CHAPTER 2 Hypothesis a type of idea or question it makes a statement about something that may be true A formal hypothesis usually states that two or more variables are related to one another Prediction concerning the outcome of the experimentWhen the results of a study confirm a prediction the hypothesis is only supported not proven Respondents individuals who take part in survey research Informants people who help researchers understand the dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings Participants when describing humans in a studySources of Ideas 1 Common SenseThe things we all believe to be trueEx do opposites attract picture worth a thousand words 2 Observation of the World Around UsEx Storing something away in a special place the effects of music lyrics research on tipping behaviorSerendipitysometimes the most interesting discoveries are the result of accident or sheer luck ex Pavlovs classical conditioning3 Theories2 important functions in increasing our understanding of behaviortheories organize and explain factsdescriptions of behavior ex Charles Darwins theory of evolution organized and explained characteristics of animal speciestheories generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking guide our observations of the world we generate hypothesis about behavior conduct studies to test hypothesis if confirmed the theory is supportedA scientific theory is grounded in actual data observations that have been made and hypothesis that can be tested through researchEx Evolutionary theory predicts that females and males will use different criteria for mate selectionTheories are usually modified as new research defines the scope of the theory4 Past ResearchBecoming familiar with a body of research on a topic is perhaps the best way to generate ideas for new researchThe research may lead to an attempt to apply the findings in a different setting to study the topic with a different age group or to use a different methodology to replicate the results Ex Drinking between males and females may lead to research on ways to reduce excess drinking by college studentsMay see inconsistencies in research results that need to be investigated or may want to study alternative explanations for the results 5 Practical ProblemsEx Practical problems that can have immediate applications city plannerscitizens might survey bicycle riders to determine most desirable route for a city bike pathAPA database system is called PsycINFO related database is PsycFIRST past 3 years Literature Review articles that summarize the research in particular areasResearch Article Anatomy a Abstract
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