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Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough

CHAPTER 9 SELECTING RESEARCH PARTICIPANTSSamples may be drawn from the population using probability sampling or nonprobability sampling techniquesProbability sampling used when it is important to accurately describe the population ie conducting scientific polls Nonprobability haphazard or convenience sampling methods used when studying the relationships between eh variables and testing prediction derived from theories of behaviourSample size also importantlarger sampleresults statistically sigMANIPULTAINT THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLETo manipulate independent variable you have to construct an operational definition of variablemust turn a conceptual variable into a set of operations specific instruction events and stimuli to be presented to the research participantsIndependent and dependent variables must be introduced within the context of the total experimental setting aka setting the stageSetting the StageProvide the participants with the informed consent information needed for studyExplain to participants whey experiment is being conductedIf deception is necessary you must address eh deception during the debriefTypes of Manipulations 1 Straightforward ManipulationsCan manipulate by presenting written verbal or visual material to participantManipulations manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentationStimuli may be presented verbally in written form via videotape or with a computer 2 Staged ManipulationsUsed for two reasons the researcher may be trying to create some psychological state in the participants anger frustration etc OR because it is necessary to simulate some situation that occurs in the real worldFrequently employ a confederateappears to be another participant in an experiment but is actually part of the manipulationConfederates may be used in field experiments as well as laboratory researchSuch procedures allow for a great deal of subtle interpersonal communication that is hard to put into words making it difficult for other to replicate the experimentA complex manipulation is difficult to interpretStrength of ManipulationSimplest experimental design has two levels of independent variableA strong manipulation maximizes the differences between the two groups and increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variableThe principle of using the strongest manipulation possible should be tempered by at least two considerations first the strongest possible manipulation may involve a situation that rarely
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