Textbook Notes (368,125)
Canada (161,663)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 3

PSYB01_Chapter 3

6 Pages
30 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
David Nussbaum
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3-Ethical Research The Belmont Report  The three basic ethical principles are beneficence, autonomy, and justice  These translate into applications: assessment of risks and benefits, informed consent, and selection of subjects Assessment of Risks and Benefits  Beneficence is the need to maximize benefits and minimize risks  Calculating risks and benefits is called risk-benefit analysis Risks in Psychological Research PHYSICAL HARM  These risks require great care be taken  The benefits would clearly need to outweigh the risks in such cases STRESS  If there is psychological harm then safeguards must be taken to help participants deal with stress as well as a debriefing that addresses any lingering problems LOSS OF PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY  Confidentiality becomes important when the topics of study are sensitive  Usually the responses are completely anonymous but sometimes there is a need to identify the individual (when they are studied over a period of time or are given feedback) o In such cases the researcher must separate the data from the person’s identity  Another concern with privacy is the observation of behaviour o Urinal example Informed Consent  In the Belmont Report, autonomy is that participants are capable of making decisions about participating in the research  The application of autonomy is informed consent—participants are provided with all the info that can influence their decision to participate Informed Consent Form  Should be written in a simple straightforward form (8 grade reading level)  Should be written in second person (as in talking to you) Autonomy Issues  When the individual lacks autonomy, the guardian is given the written consent form, and there is also an agreement from the individual known as an assent  Coercion is also a threat to autonomy o Example—must participate in the experiment to pass the course Information Issues: Withholding Information and Deception  It is generally acceptable to deceive or withhold info when the information will not affect the decision to participate  Many research procedures that do not require informed consent  Providing informed consent may bias participant’s response  Providing informed consent may bias the sample o Generate only a specific “type” of people in the sample Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research  Deception mostly used in social psychology  There are three reasons for the decrease in deception: o More emphasis on cognitive psychology rather than emotions o Awareness of ethical issues o Ethics committees that review proposed research  Elaborate deception only approved when the research is meaningful with no alternatives The Importance of Debriefing  Debriefing occurs after the completion of the study and is an opportunity to deal with issues such as withholding information, risks, etc.  If the participants were deceived, they are told why they were deceived  If the research caused physical or psychological harm, the participant is made comfortable and is calmed down  Researcher also explains the purpose of the study and practical implications Alternatives To Deception Role-Playing  In role-playing the researcher describes a situation to the participant and asks them how they would respond  This method does not involve the participants deeply, and they may try to behave in ways consistent with the hypothesis  The most serious defect is that people cannot accurately predict their behaviour Simulation Studies  A simulation of a real world situation, creates high personal involvement but can have dangerous effects o Example—prison experiment with Stanford university Honest Experiments  The first strategy is which participants are told the purposes of the research  A second strategy is used in situations where programs try to change people’s behaviour o Example—quit smoking  Another method is experimental manipulation in a natural setting  Yet another method is when naturally occurring events present an opportunity for research Justice and the Selection of Participants  Justice is fairness in
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit