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PSYB01H3 (581)
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Chapter 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 6 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES - Observational methods can be classified as primarily quantitative or qualitative - Qualitative research- focuses on people behaving in natural settings and describing their world in their own words o Few individuals & smaller samples - Quantitative research- focuses on behaviours that can be easily quantified o Larger samples NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION - A.k.a. field work or field observations - In a naturalistic observation study- the researchers make observations of individuals in their natural environments (the field) o Roots in anthro and study of animal behaviour - Ex. employees in a business org, members of a sports team, patrons of a bar, students and teachers in a school, or prairie dogs in a colony in Arizona - Observations are made in natural settings and the researchers didn’t attempt to influence what occurred in the settings Description and Interpretation of Data - Goal of naturalistic observation is to provide a complete/accurate picture of what happened in the setting, rather than to test hypotheses formed before the study - Achieve this goal by keeping detailed field notes - Researchers goals: o First goal is to describe the settings, events, and people observed o Analyze what was observed- generating hypotheses that explain the data and make them understandable - Good naturalistic observation report will support the analysis by using multiple confirmations. Ex. similar events may occur several times, similar information may be reported by 2 or more people, and several different events may occur that all support the same conclusion SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION - Systematic observation- refers to the careful observation of one or more specific behaviours in a particular setting - Less global than naturalistic observation research - Researcher is only interested in only a few specific behaviours, and these observations are quantifiable, and the researcher frequently has developed prior hypotheses about the behaviours - Ex Bakeman and Brownlee was interested in the social behaviour of young children o 3 year olds were taped in a room in a “free play” situation o Videos were coded every 15 seconds using this coding system:  Unoccupied: child isn’t doing anything/watching others  Solitary play: child plays alone/ not interested in others  Together: child is with others but no activity  Parallel play: child plays beside other kids with similar toys but not with others  Group play: child plays with others, shares toys or participates in organized play activities as part of a group of kids o Found that the children rarely went from
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