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Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 7- Asking People About Themselves: Survey Research - Survey Research- employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide info about themselves- their attitudes and beliefs, demographics (age, gender, income, marital status, etc), and past or intended future behaviours - Response set- tendency to respond to all questions from a particular perspective rather than to provide answers that are directly related to the questions o Can affect the usefulness of data obtained from self-reports o Common response set is faking social desirability CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK Defining Research Objectives - Attitudes and beliefs- questions about these focus on the ways that people evaluate and think about issues - Facts and demographics- asking demographic info is needed to adequately describe your sample o Age, gender and ethnicity are usually asked - Behaviours- some survey questions can focus on past behaviours or intended future behaviours Question Wording - Simplicity- questions need to be relatively simple - Double-barreled questions- avoid questions that ask 2 things at once - Negative wording- avoid phrasing questions with negatives. Ex. do you feel that the city should not approve the women’s shelter? Is confusing - Yea-saying and nay-saying- agreeing or disagreeing to everything- avoid this by wording questions so that consistent agreement is unlikely RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS Closed vs Open Ended Questions - Closed-ended question- limited answer options - Open- ended question- free to write whatever they want Number of Response Alternatives - Allows people to express themselves - Ex. a 5 or 7 point scale ranging from strong agree to strongly disagree Rating Scales - 5 to 7 response alternatives - Graphic rating scale- requires a mark along a continuous 100 mm line - Semantic differential scale- measure of the meaning of concepts o Respondents rate any concept on a series of bipolar adjectives using a 7 point scale o Ex. smoking cigarettes Good _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bad Strong _ _ _ _ _ _ _Weak Active _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Passive o Concepts are related along 3 basic definitions:  Evaluation  Potency  Activity - Nonverbal scales for children- using face scales FINALIZING THE QUESTIONNAIRE - Formatting the Questionnaire o Attractive and professional o Types and error free o Use the same point scale o Space evenly o Careful sequence of questions - Refining questions o Use the think aloud procedure and give the questionnaire to friends or colleagues ADMINISTERING SURVERYS - Questionnaire format: o Handing out  Have an audience & researcher is there for questions o Mail surveys  Inexpensive  Low response rates- forgotten about  No one is there if the person has a question o Internet surveys  Easy  Both open and closed ended questions - Interview format: o Face to face  Expensive and time consuming  Good for small sample size o Telephone  Good for large scale surveys  Less expensive  Quick data collection  Computer assisted telephone interview (CATI)- interviewer’s questions are prompted on a computer screens and data is entered directly into the computer for analysis o Focus group interviews  Used in industry  6-10 people for 2-3 hours  Group interaction for open ended questions STUDYING CERTAIN CHANGES OVER TIME - Annual surveys of the same q
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