Textbook Notes (368,794)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes 97-03.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

David Nussbaum

PSYB01 Chapter 2 - The Foundations of Psychological Research Facial Expressions of Emotion - On an experimental design allows for testing of cause-and-effect relationships The Goals of Science Paul Ekman: study of facial expressions of emotion (1960s) - Traced to Charles Darwin’s 1872 book “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals” - Went to places like Japan, Brazil and Argentina, then to jungles of Papua New Guinea - Discovery that facial expressions of emotions were not socially learned but rather products of evolution - 7 Basic Emotions: Fear, Anger, Happiness, Contempt, Surprise, Disgust and Sadness - Description: o Principle objective of research is to provide a scientific understanding of the topic o Researchers describe and define terms both conceptually and operationally  Conceptual Definition: provides the meaning, often rather broad in scope, of an abstract term  Operational Definition: follow from conceptual, indicates how a concept is coded, measured or quantified. • Ekman: Facial Action Coding System: Defines specific combinations of facial muscle movements that are universally generated when certain emotions are elicited • Important aspect of a scientific description and explanation is establishing predictive relationships between two events or occurrences • Coding system is transparent so it can be replicated in another study - Explanation o Can include both prediction as well as establishing cause and effect o Causality (requires 3 kinds of evidence as described by Cook and Campbell (1979))  Temporal Precedence: Cause precedes the effect  Covariation of the cause and effect: When the cause is present, the effect occurs, when the cause is absent, the effect does not occur  Alternative Explanations: Must show that nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect o It is impossible for humans to control for all extraneous confounding or so-called third variables that could account for the observed effect PSYB01 Chapter 2 - The Foundations of Psychological Research o Even if we can’t identify causality, a scientific explanation can provide highly useful information that helps specify rules under which a certain phenomenon occurs - Practical Knowledge o Basic Research: Addresses fundamental questions about the nature of abstract psychological processes and ideas such as emotion, intelligence, reasoning and social behaviour o Applied Research: addresses important questions that are thought to be of immediate relevance in solving practical problems  Program Evaluation: studies effects on behaviour of large-scale policy changes, social reforms and innovations occurring in government, schools, courts, prisons, businesses, health care, housing and so on Sources of Research Ideas - Starting with Observation o Observation can serve as a source of both evidence and ideas o Often in research, our observations will need to be broken down into simpler units that allow for more precise quantification and measurement o Serendipity effect: Prepared yet open mind increases chance of accidentally discovering something good - Starting with Theory o Research question flow directly from theory o Darwin, William James, Carl Lange  All theorized that emotions are feelings that come about as a result of physiological changes such as perspiration, rapid heartbeat, muscular tension, dryness of mouth, etc.  All created by the autonomic nervous system (regulates body reactions to stress) *James-Lange Theory o Walter Cannon and Philip Bard  Cannon-Bard Theory: emotions come first, followed by bodily changes o Niedenthal (2007)  Embodiment Theory of Emotion: Perceptual, somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing of the relevant emotion  When people adopt emotion-specific body postures, they experience the associated emotions  When people make facial expression or emotional gestures, their perception and impressions are affected  Inhibiting people’s motor movements can interfere with their experience of emotion - Literature o Scientific Journals: Empirical articles and review articles PSYB01 Chapter 2 - The Foundations of Psychological Research  Empirical Articles: Reports on a particular study in format with Abstract, Intro, Method, Results and Discussion  Review Articles: Examines several studies of a particular phenomenon o Popular Science Literature: written to explain science for a general audience o Science Journalism: Focuses on recent developments in that are judged newsworthy o Both Popular Science and Science Journals: Lacks critical sense of proportionality, cautiousness and tentativeness, can be oversold o Secondary Sources: Second-hand media accounts of scientific work o Primary Source: the first-hand empirical report published in a peer-reviewed journal - Searching the Literature o Internet opened new doors for researchers and scholars o Internet traveling: Hyperlink to hyperlink  May lead to an online serendipity of stumbling onto an unexpected article o Google Scholar, American Psychological Association, and Association for Psychological Science (PsychINFO and PsycLIT are specialized, non-commercial search engines sponsored by APA), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) includes psych, soc and crim  Proprietary: Open only to subscribers - Let the Searcher Beware (latin: caveat lector) o Elizabeth Kirk: guidelines for evaluating information from the Internet (www.libraryjhu.edu)  Should never use information that cannot be verified by other independent sources  Authority, Publishing Body, Point of View or Bias, Connection to the Scientific Literature, Timelines o Internet affects/shapes scholarship  James Evans: Narrowing effect on thinking and research  Alex Bentley: Academic research a popularity contest (search results may have little to do with scientific merit or impact, selling for advertisements will affect how search engines browse, list and update info) Research Strategies - Two most important elements of all scientific research is o a) theory (a set of propositions that explains a variety of occurrences)  3 major functions: organization, explanation and prediction PSYB01 Chapter 2 - The Foundations
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.