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PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes 97-03.doc

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David Nussbaum

PSYB01Chapter 10Quantitative Data AnalysisDunn and colleagues performed three different types of research to find association between increased happiness and spending money on othersoParticipants given 5 or 20 to spend on personal spending or prosocial spending by 5pm at the end of the day they rate their happiness levelStatistical ApproachDescriptive statistics describe variables in a studyInferential statistics estimate characteristics of a population from random sampleLevel of Measurement MattersoNominal ordinal interval ratiooPersonal vs prosocialnominalcategoricaloRate happiness on 110 scaleordinal minimal arithmetic distinctionso5 vs 20interval fixed intervals of dollarso0ratio absolute zero pointUnivariate DistributionsUnivariate distribution is a probability or frequency distribution of only one variableFrequency DistributionsoShows number of cases andor percentage of cases who receive each possible score on a variableoMany frequency distributions and graphs require grouping of some values after the data are collectedNumber of values may be too large to be displayed in an easily readable tableDistribution of variable will be clearer or more meaningful if some of the values are combinedoWhen combined there are guidelinesCategories should be logically defensible and preserve distributions shapePSYB01Chapter 10Quantitative Data AnalysisCategories should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive so that every case should be classifiable in one and only one categoryGraphingoBar charts and histograms both have two axes and labels to identify variables and valuesBar chart solid bars separated by spaces good for showing nominal dataHistogram frequency distribution of quantitative variableoBeware of deceptive graphsIf misused they can distort rather than display shape of distributionAdhere to guidelinesDifference between bars should not be exaggerated by cutting off bottom of vertical axis if you do mark the break clearly on axisAlways use bars of equal widthTwo axes should be of approximately equal lengthAvoid chart junk that can confuse readerDescriptive StatisticsPrimary concern is to display accurately the distributions shape3 features of shape central tendency variability skewness lack of symmetryMeasures of Central TendencyoSummarized with one of three statistics mode median or meanoMode most frequent value in a distribution also known as the probability average most frequent value most probableBimodal distribution with 2 or more categories with an equal number of cases with more cases than any other categoriesUnimodal one category with the most cases
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