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Chapter 2

PSYB01 Textbook Notes - Chapter 2

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Anna Nagy

Chapter 2 Where to Start The motivation to conduct scientific research derives from a natural curiousity about the world. Hypothesis and Predictions Hypothesis a statement, formulated by the researcher, that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; often a statement asserting that two or more variables are related. Therefore, it is only a tentative idea waiting for evidence to support or refute it. Hypothesis can be general, informal questions (ie. Do males and females differ in their drinking ability). In such cases, the researchers develop a procedure for collecting data to answer the questions. These are informal hypotheses or simply questions about behavior. Formal hypotheses state that two or more variables are related (ie. Crowding results in reduced performance on cognitive tasks). Such hypotheses are formulated on the basis of past research and theoretical considerations. The research will then design an experiment to test the hypothesis. At this point the experimenter will make a specific prediction concerning the outcome of the experiment. If the prediction is confirmed by the results, the hypothesis is supported; if the prediction is not confirmed, we will either reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods. A hypothesis can only be supported is cannot be proven. Who we Study: A Note on Terminology Participants are also referred to as subjects. The publication Manual of the American Psychological Association recommends using the term participants when describing humans who take part in psychological research. Respondents individuals who take part in survey research. Informants people who help researchers understand the dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings the term originated in anthropological and sociological research. Sources of Data Five sources of ideas are: 1. common sense 2. observation of the world 3. theories 4. past research www.notesolution.com
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