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Chapter 8

PSYB01 Textbook Notes - Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 8 Experimental Design In the experimental method, all extraneous variables are controlled Confounding and Internal Validity The experimental method provides an unambiguous interpretation of results because the independent variable is manipulated by the researcher to create groups that differ in the levels of the variable, which are then compared in terms of their scores of the dependant variable All other variables are kept constant, either through experimental control or randomization If the scores of the groups are different, can conclude that it was caused by the independent variable (because that was the only difference between the groups). A confounding variable is a variable that varies along with the independent variable confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and the uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine which variable caused the observed effect. Good experimental design eliminates possible confounding that results in possible alternative explanations, because only by eliminating competing, alternative explanations can we draw a causal relationship from the independent variable. Internal Validity when the results of an experiment can confidently be attributed to the independent variable (and not any alternate explanations). Basic Experiments The simplest experimental design has two variables the independent and dependant variables The independent has two levels the control group and the experimental group Researchers make every effort to ensure the only difference between groups is the manipulated variable remember experiments involve control over extraneous variable through keeping such variables constant (control group) or by randomization. There are two types of basic experiments Posttest-only Design and Pretest- Posttest Design Posttest-Only Design (diagram pg 151) Researcher must: 1. obtain two equivalent groups of participants to eliminate and potential selection differences: the people selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way. The groups can be made equivalent by randomly assigning participants. www.notesolution.com
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