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Chapter 1

PSYBO1H3-TextNotes.Chap 1,2,3,4,5.docx

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Anna Nagy

PSYBO1 Chapter 1Scientific Understanding of BehaviourUses of Research MethodsThe Limitations of Intuition and Authority ex adopting a child and then conceiving the intuitive approach involves finding an explanation for our own behaviours or the behaviours of others used to explain intriguing events that one observes relying on intuition is a problem for numerous cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptionsillusory correlationoccurs when we focus on two events that stand our and occur togethero occur when we are highly motivated to believe in the causal relationship Authority important people we believe them Skepticisim Science and the Empirical Approachempiricismknowledge is based on observations falsifiabilitygood scientific ideas are testable they can be supported or falsifiedGoals of Sciencescientific research has four general goals o to describe behaviourcareful observation o to predict behaviourpossible predications after some regularity in events through observation o to determine the causes of behaviour o to understand or explain behaviourthree types of evidence used to identify the cause of a behaviour o temporal precedencethere is a temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effectex television viewing occurred first and aggression then followedo covariation of the cause and effectwhen the cause is present the effect occurs when the cause is not present the effect does not occuro alternative explanations eliminationnothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect Basic and Applied Research basictries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviourtheoretical straight answers applied addresses issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutionscan be applied to everyday situationsChapter 2Where to Start common sense ideapicture worth a thousand wordsmay lead to research on the role of visual images in learning and memory
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