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Canada (161,663)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
David Nussbaum
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 11: Qualitative Methods o learn by listening and/or observing others in natural environment Fundamentals of Qualitative Research distinguishing features o collection of primarily qualitative rather than quantitative data o Exploratory research questions, with a commitment to inductive reasoning o A focus on previously unstudied processed and unanticipated phenomena o A focus in human subjectivity, on the meanings that participants attach to events and that people give to their lives o reflexive research design, in which the design develops as the research progresses o Sensitivity to the researchers subjectivity Methods for Collective Qualitative Data o Qualitative interviewing: open ended, relatively unstructured questioning to seek in depth info on interviewees feeling's, experiences, and perceptions o Participant observation: developing sustained relationship with people as they do their normal activities o Focus groups: unstructured group interviews in which the focus group leader actively encourages discussion among participants on the topics of interest Qualitative Interviewing o can be used by itself of combined with participant observation o consistency and thoroughness o more actively engaged: listen to long explanations, ask follow up questions seek to learn interrelated belief systems or personal approaches rather than measure fixed variables; must pay attention to nonverbal cues, expressions, ebb and flow of interviewees feelings and interests o follows preplanned outline of topics o start with background info then general grand tour questions Selecting Interviewees o knowledgeable about subject of interview o open to talking o range of perspectives o selection until saturation point  saturation point: point where new interviews seem to yield little additional information Asking Questions and Recording answers o planned around outline of general topic o questions short and to the point o tailored follow up questions o tape recorders (can have an influence on responses of some) o constant note taking can hinder concentration and interest paid to interviewee Developing Rapport o show interest in interviewee and explain purpose in first few minutes o maintain appropriate distance (cultural norms) o eye contact no distracting behaviour o appropriate pace o if covers emotional or stressful topics give interviewee opportunity to unwind at end Participant Observation o participant observers: seek to avoid artificiality of experimental design and unnatural structured questioning; encourages consideration of context and interactions o Not used in psychotherapeutic process: has too much impact on process o concern: balance between observing and participating; depends on researcher background, sociopolitical context and ethical concerns; balance can change too (evaluate how your actions may affect others) o reactive effects: how your actions can affect those of others; not always natural for observer to be their; bigger impact when few people or observing is unlike other usual activities in the setting; depends on how well researcher blends in o field researchers: most have role that involves some active participation ex. group activities; leads to more trust  participants can sometimes become too close  observers must evaluate their effect on others  must also try and preserve some physical space and time for research Entering the Field o critical: can shape subsequent interactions o must learn in advance how participants typically dress and typical activities to be prepared o critical to find participant who can make introductions o formal permission may be needed Managing Relationships o so they can continue to observe and interview o every action can develop or undermine o advice  plausible honest explanation for why they are there  maintain support of key individuals there  be unobtrusive and unassuming  dont be too aggressive in questioning  ask sensitive questions only when relationship is good  be self revealing only to a point  dont fake social similarity  avoid giving receiving money or gift but without violating reciprocity norm  prepare for special difficulties if multiple groups involved Taking notes o jottings: memory joggers for field notes and daily logs o field notes: comprehensive notes written immediately after; complete detailed true as possible; distinguish direct quotes from paraphrased; indicate pauses and interruptions, attention to surrounding context, map of setting where individuals are; description of methodology; ethical concerns  will suggest new concepts connections and theoretical propositions  can supplement with pictures videos or printed materials o identify 5 ws and how; becomes more focused over time o Address  context (setting), participants (incl imp variables), observer (and link to context), action of participants (verbal nonverbal and action sequence), consider alte
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