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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 7: True Experiments- multifactorial designs Substantive Theme: Social and Emotional Influences on Thinking and Perceiving Factorial designs: complex experimental designs Multifactorial: experiments that vary two or more independent variables and provide direct tests of the main effects of each independent variable and interaction effects between and among independent variables Multifactorial Designs  Add another independent variable NOT a level to an existing independent variable\  More realistic model of rich psychological phenomena  Each IV can be between subjects or within subjects  If within subjects have to counterbalance order Notations and terms o 2 x 2 factorial design: two independent variables with two levels/values  Amount of numbers tells you how many IV and the values of the numbers tell how many levels of each IV; order doesn`t matter  Number of treatments groups is the actual mathematics of the notation ex. 2x2=4 Theory and Experimentation o Ex. Theories of embodied cognition: when we perceive/think about emotion we re-enact or re-experience its perceptual, somatovisceral and motoric features o Theory guides how an experiment is designed how IVs are developed and manipulated, how DV are measured and which hypothesis are tested A Complex Within-Subjects Experiment o Approach-avoidance motivation: theory supporting that both eye-gaze direction and facial expression share informational value as signals of approach (propel behaviour forward, fight) or avoidance (inhibition and flight) o Amygdala: is responsive to threat and responds differently to fearful or angry facial displays when combined with direct or averted eye gaze o Social signalling system: system of facial expressions of emotion and gaze direction that governs our basic evolved behavioural tendencies for approach or avoidance Decoding Facial Expressions of Emotion o Experimentation deconstructs complex phenomena like facial expression of emotion into discrete components ex. Facial Action Coding System Devising Independent Variables o From research o Experimental stimuli: ex. Facial stimuli that varied in expression and gaze direction o Experimental task: for participants to perform; have to decide whether within or between subjects o Reliability of a test can often be increased by simply adding more items The 2 x 2 Design o In result tables show results for each group and row means and column means Main Effects o Main effect: of an IV tells the effects of each IV on a DV; ex. Column and row means o Are statistically independent of interaction effects Interactions o Statistical interaction: between two IV when the effects of one level of the IV depend on the particular level of the other IV; look at one level of an IV and see how it changes with the levels of the other IV ex. Direct gaze led to faster judgment of anger faces but slower judgement of fear faces Interpreting Results of Multifactorial Designs o Interpret interaction first before main effects as interaction indicates that any interpretation of a main effect of an IV by itself will be misleading o Can graph main effects and interactions to help understand and interpret Graph of interactions: plot simple main effects   Simple main effect: each cell value; compared the influence of one level of an IV at a given level of another IV  Cross-over interaction: classic; two lines cross over each other depicting interaction aka antagonistic interaction  If no cross over and lines are parallel to each other conclude no interaction between Ivs 2 x 2 Logic o Provides direct test of main effect of each IV and independently test of interaction of the two o Can have significance or
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