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PSYB01H3 (585)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 6: True Experiments I: Single Factorial Designs Memory Enhancement in Healthy Older Adults Using A Brain Plasticity Based Training Program: A randomized controlled study Basics of experimentation  Control: who receives what and how much and how the experiment is conducted Experimental Control  Built into the studies design  Standardization Randomization  Of effects that cant be held constant so they cancel out  Can help avoid primacy and recency effects  Random assignment: any extraneous influence just as likely to affect one group as another  Quasiexperimental: not randomized Independent Variables  Factors: independent variables  Single factor experiment: on with one independent variable  Condition: way participant is treated; treatment  Experimental/treatment group: receive level of independent variable that is focus of study  Comparison group  Control group : baseline Dependent Variables  Can pre test and post test to see change but make sure not influenced by practice effects Control variables  Some are easy ex. Time of day, location, temperature, instructions  Might have to quantify control variable Research Design Alternatives Between subjects design: different groups receive different levels of iv; large number of people needed but no contamination (ex. Randomized clinical studies: drug Treatment studies) o Randomization and matching: to equalize individual differences (do pretest to see if there is differences between groups) o Randomized comparitive change design/ pretest-posttest control group design: randomized experimental design with a pretest and a post test o Matching: pairing similar people and randomly splitting; becomes quasiexperimental; matched pairs design Within subjects design: each participant receives all three o Repeated measures o Fewer participants needed o Longitudinal research design: collect data about individual over a long period of time o Carryover effects: contamination from different treatments or fatigue, practice familiarity causes experimental error; combat by using randomization of treatments o Counterbalancing: find all the different possible orders and split up different people to different orders to combat carryover effects o Latin square design: incomplete counterbalancing arrangement where each possible order occurs equally often across research participants; switch from order 1 to 2 to 3 repeatedly; need sample size that is multiple of number of treatments Selecting a between or within subjects design o Between subject random might not be equal prior to treatment but within subjects can have carryover effects Internal Validity  Extent to which procedures and methods are optimally arranged so effect of IV on DV is unambiguous; allows determination of causal relationships  Design sensitivity: extent to
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