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Canada (161,775)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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David Nussbaum

Chapter 2: The Foundations of Psychological Research Facial Expressions of Emotion Experimental design: manipulate independent variable and control other variables; only it allows for testing of cause and effect relationship Non experimental design: quasiexperimental, correlation, survey, single-subject or small-N research The Goals of Science  Paul Ekman: nonexperimental studies of facial expression across cultures led to experimental studies on it Description  Conceptual definition: provides meaning of an abstract term, semantic or linguistic meaning  Operational definition: indicates how a concept is coded, measured or quantified ex facial action coding system Explanation  Both prediction and establishing cause and effect  Three kinds of evidence causality requires o Temporal precedence: cause precedes the effect o Covariation of the cause and effect: when cause is present effect occurs when cause isnt effect isnt either o Alternative explanations: must be eliminated, no third variables or confounding Practical Knowledge  Basic research: addresses fundamental questions about the nature of abstract psychological processes and ideas like emotion intelligence reasoning and social behaviour  Applied research: addresses questions to solve relevant problems o Ex. Program Evaluation: studies the effects on behaviour of large scale policy changes, social reforms and innovations  Both are linked in a continuum and build on each other Sources of Research Ideas Starting with Observation  Often observations have to be broken down into simpler units so they can be quantified and measured  Serendipity effect: prepared but open mind increases the chances of accidentally discovering something fortunate Starting with Theory  James Lange Theory: physiological changes occur first then experience emotional feeling  Cannon Bard Theory: emotions come first followed by bodily changes  Embodiment theory of emotion: perceptual, somatovisceral, and motoric re-experiencing of the relevant emotion; interplay of states and emotions Literature  Journals: constitute scientific literature o Empirical articles: reports on a particular study o Review article: examines several studies of a particular phenomenon  Secondary Sources: meant to lead you to primary sources o Popular science literature: written by eminent scientists to explain science for a general audience o Science journalism: focuses on recent developments in science that are judged newsworthy Searching the Literature Google Scholar   American Psychological Association and Association for Psychological Science o PsycINFO and PsycLIT: search engine database for citations and abstracts of world literature on psychology  Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI): includes articles from psychology and other related areas  Proprietary: most; only open to subscribers Let the Searcher Beware  Dont use info that cant be verified by other independent sources  Dont believe everything, verify and take into account advertising Research Strategies Deductive reasoning: starti
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