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PSYB01H3 (585)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

CH.3 ETHICS IN BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH - Obedience experiments by Stanley Milgram: 62.5% of participants complied with the experimenters demands - Although 15 ethical standards in the rsrch and publication category are but a fraction of the 83 standards in the APA code of conduct (2002). It isnt possible to draw a clear dividing line btwn ethics applicable to clinical and rsrch practice: whenever we interact with other ppl as psychs, we must give paramount imprtnce to rational concerns and emotional needs tht will shape their responses to our actions Historical Background - Nuremberg war crime trials: medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors and others in the name of science. - Tuskegee syphilis study: funded by the U.S Public Health service had followed 399 low income African American men. Participants werent informed of their illness and were denied treatment until 1972 even though a cure penicillin was dvlpd in the 1950s. - Violations of human rights lead to the creation of a National commission for the protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioural research. - Belmont Report established 3 basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects: respect for persons (treating person as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy); beneficence (minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefits); justice (distributing benefits and risks of research fairly) - The department of health and human services and the food and drug administration then translated these principles into specific regulations tht were adopted in 1991 as the Federal policy for the protection of human subjects - Federal regulations require tht every institution tht seeks deferral funding for biomedical or behaviour rsrch on human subjects have an institutional review board (IRB) tht reviews rsrch proposals. IRBs at universities and other agencies apply ethical standards tht are set by federal regulations but can be expanded or specified by the IRB itself which includes diverse background members. - Office for protection frm rsrch risks in the national institutes of health monitors IRBs with the exception of rsrch involving drugs which is the responsibility of the federal food and drug administration ETHICAL PRINCIPLES - Beneficence and Nonmaleficience: psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights to those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons and welfare of animal subjects of research - Fidelity and responsibility: establish relationships of trust with those whom they work. They uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behaviour and to seek manage conflicts of interest tht could lead to exploitation or harm. They strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage - Integrity: psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching and practice of psychology. They do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact - Justice: psychologists recognize tht fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists - Respect for Peoples Rights and Dignity: psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all ppl and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination. Theyre aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making. Ethical standards for research that reflect five APA principles Achieving Valid Results (Principle B. Fidelity and Responsibility) - Commitment to achieving valid results is the necessary starting point for ethical rsrch practice. - It is the pursuit of objective knowledge abt human behaviour- the goal of validity that motivates and justifies our investigations and gives us some claim to the right to influence others to participate in our research - Knowledge should contribute the advancement of human progression Maintaining Professional Integrity (Principle C) - In order to assess the validity of a researchers conclusions and the ethics of their procedures, you need to know exactly how the research was conducted. Articles or other reports must include a detailed methodology section, perhaps supplemented by appendices containing the research instrument or websites or other contact information where more info can be obtained Protecting Research Participants (Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence) - Protection of rsrch participants is the most important ethical principle. - Avoid harming rsrch participants: it shouldnt harm them psychologically and physically. - Obtain informed consent: consent must be given by persons who are competent to consent, consented voluntarily, fully informed abt the resrch and have comprehended wht they have been told. Participants disclosing nature of experiment to other participants can contaminate subsequent results. Unfortunately, if debriefing process is delayed, the ability to lessen any harm resulting from the deception is also reduced - Avoid deception in rsrch except in limited circumstances: deception occurs when subjects are mislead abt rsrch procedures to determine how they would react to the treatment if they werent rsrch subjects. Deception is a critical component of many psychological experiments because of the difficulty of simulating real wrld stresses and dilemmas in laboratory setting. Effectivedebriefing or rsrch participants after an experiment can help to reduce the risk of harm due to the use of deception in the experiment - Maintain privacy and confidentiality: procedures to protect each subjects privacy such as locking records and creating special identifying codes must be created to minimize the risk of access by unauthorized persons. The standard of confidentiality doesnt apply to observation in public places and info available in public records - The national institutes of health can issue a certificate of confidentiality to protect rsrchers frm being legally required to disclose confidential informations - The health insurance portability and accountability act, the final privacy rule applies to oral, written and electronic info tht relates the past, present, future physical or mental health or condtn of an individual Encouraging Appropriate Application - Scientists must also consider the uses to which their researcher is put CH.4 CONCEPTUALIZATION AND MEASUREMENT Developing and Defining Constructs - Psychological theory is imprtnt b.c it will provide a conceptual framework for your study. - A conceptual framework can be thought of as a network of interlocking rltnships linking theoretical ideas concrete variables and their measurements
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