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PSYB07H3 (12)
Chapter 1

b07 chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB07H3
Professor
Douglas Bors
Semester
Fall

Description
Stats - chapter 1 - 1 Stats, chapter one: displaying the order in a group of numbers using tables and graphs - Stats is method of pursuing truth - Use stat methods to help them make sense of numbers they collect when conducting research Statistics: branch of math that focuses on the organization, analysis, and interpretation of a group of members Descriptive statistics: procedures for summarizing a group of scores or otherwise making them more understandable Inferential statistics: procedures for drawing conclusions based on scores collected in a research study but going beyond them Two branches of stats methods 1. Descriptive stats: use descriptive stats to summarize and describe group of numbers from study 2. Inferential stats: use inferential stats to draw conclusion and to make inferences that are based on numbers from research study but that go beyond numbers. Ex, allow to make inference about large group based on study in which smaller group of individuals took part Basic concepts - Variable is condition or characteristic that can have different values, it can vary Variable: characteristic that ca have different values (ex. stress level, age, gender...) Values: possible number or category that score can have (ex. 1, 2, 3, female...) Score: particular person's value on a variable (ex. 1, 2, 3, female...) Levels of measurement (kinds of variables) - Most important distinction b/w equal interval variable and rank-order variable Numeric variable: variable whose values are numbers (as opposed to nominal), also called a quantitative variable Equal-interval variable: variable in which the numbers stand for approx equal amounts of what is being measured (ex. GPA... difference b/w 2.5 and 2.8 is same as difference b/w 3.0 and 3.3) Ratio scale: equal interval variable is measured on ratio scale if it has absolute zero point, meaning that value of zero on variable indicates complete absence of variable (ex. # of siblings one has cause zero value means no siblings) Rank-order variable: numeric variable in which values are ranks, also called ordinal variable (ex. class standing) (rank order provides less information than equal interval) Nominal variable: variable with values that are categories (they are names rather than numbers), also called categorical variable - term nominal comes from idea that its values are names - ex. values are female and male Levels of measurement: types of underlying numerical information provided by measure, such as equal interval, rank order and nominal - level of measurement selected affects type of statistics that can be used with variable Stats - chapter 1 - 2 Discrete variable: variable that has specific vales and that cannot have values b/w these specfic values - ex. how many times did you go to dentist?, answer: 1..2..3.?.. cannot be 1.5 times Continuous variable: variable for which, in theory, there are an infinite number of values b/w an two values - how long have you studied at the school? answer: 1.5 years Frequency tables Frequency tables: ordered listing of number of individuals having each of the different values for a particular variable - Shows how frequently each score was used - Frequency table makes pattern of numbers easy to see - Example for stress ratings - frequency of specific value is the number of students who used each particular rating - cumulative frequencies - total number of scores with that value and all values preceding it cause they tell how many scores are accumulated up to this point on the table - percentile - cumulative percentage fro any given value (or score having that value) How to make a frequency table 1. Make a list down page of each possible value, from lowest to highest - if a value is not used you still include it in (0 to 10 scale but 2 is not used, you still include it) 2. Go one by one through scores, making a mark for each next to its value on your list 3. Make a table showing how many times each value on your list is used - add up number of marks beside each value 4. Figure percentage of cores for eac
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